Institute of Microbiology

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2019-11-25
10:15
Důležitost mykologických průzkumů-popis nejčastějších dřevokazných hub a zkušenosti ze znalecké praxe
Gabriel, Jiří
The paper deals with the threat of buildings and timber structures with wood decaying fungi. It describes the most common wood decaying fungi occurring in interiors, their emergence and the spread of fungi in the room.

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2019-11-25
10:15
BETA-GLUCANS: WHAT APPLICATIONS? A GENERAL OVERVIEW
Vannucci, Luca ; Mishra, Rajbardhan ; Lukáč, Pavol ; Tenti, Paolo ; Rajsiglová, Lenka ; Větvička, Václav ; Šíma, Petr
Glucans are polysaccharides derived from various sources (e.g. mushrooms, algae, yeast, barley). They can target immune receptors, like Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells - antigen presenting cells. Otherwise, interest is rising for their use not only for modulation of immunity, but also of cholesterol levels, or as possible vaccine adjuvants, nanocarriers and functional food components. We will shortly review some aspects in human and veterinarian applications.

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2019-08-26
09:04
The Occurence Of Bla(Tem) And Tet(W) Genes In Czech Wastewaters And Their Fate In Fungal-Based Wastewater Treatment Processes
Svobodová, Kateřina ; Adámek, M. ; Petráčková, Denisa
Antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes (ARB&Gs) have presently emerged as serious environmental pollutants with a high health risk. This study analyzed the occurrence of ARGs tet(W), bla(TEM) and intl1 in microbiomes from 4 Czech wastewater treatment plants showing that bla(TEM) displayed slightly higher gene abundance compared to tet(W). Next, simulated wastewater seeded with activated sludge bacteria was treated with Pleurotus ostreatus-based bioreactor to evaluate the effect of the fungal filter on bacterial community structure and bacterial resistome in wastewaters. The results showed that functional diversity of bacterial communities was significantly changed by their contact with fungal biofilm as revealed by EcoPlate assays and analyses of bacterial 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. A significant decrease in tet(W) abundance (48 times) was observed in fungal-treated wastewater compared to untreated one. The abundance of bla(TEM) genes increased 4 times during the adaptation of bacteria to nutrient conditions and remained unaffected by the fungal treatment. To our knowledge this work is first to study the fate of ARGs in wastewaters during their advanced biological treatment. It documented that P. ostreatus has a potential to lower the abundance of some ARGs in wastewaters.

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2019-08-26
09:04
BETA-GLUCANS: WHAT APPLICATIONS? A GENERAL OVERVIEW
Vannucci, Luca ; Mishra, Rajbardhan ; Lukáč, Pavol ; Tenti, Paolo ; Rajsiglová, Lenka ; Větvička, Václav ; Šíma, Petr
Glucans are polysaccharides derived from various sources (e.g. mushrooms, algae, yeast, barley). They can target immune receptors, like Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells - antigen presenting cells. Otherwise, interest is rising for their use not only for modulation of immunity, but also of cholesterol levels, or as possible vaccine adjuvants, nanocarriers and functional food components. We will shortly review some aspects in human and veterinarian applications.

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2019-02-13
17:44
Složení kožního mikrobiomu pacientů s psoriázou
Stehlíková, Zuzana ; Jůzlová, P. ; Rob, F. ; Herzogová, J. ; Koren, O. ; Uzan, A. ; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena ; Jirásková Zákostelská, Zuzana
Psoriáza je chronické, neinfekční a zánětlivé onemocnění kůže, na jejíž patogenezi se kromě faktorů životního prostředí podílí také mikrobiota. V naší práci jsme porovnali složení kožní mikrobioty mezi zdravými kontrolami a pacienty s psoriázou pomocí sekvenace V1V2 úseků 16S rRNA. Zjistili jsme, že psoriatické léze disponují větší druhovou diverzitou, než kontralaterální zdravé místo stejného pacienta, nebo totéž místo zdravé kontroly. Rod Propionibacterium byl u psoriatických pacientů více zastoupen na zdravém místě kůže (57,77%), než na místě postiženém psoriázou (47, 12%). Opačný trend jsme pozorovali u rodu Staphylococcus, který byl naopak více zastoupen na psoriatických lézích (18,78%), méně pak na zdravé kůži stejného pacienta (9,52%). Protože jsou bakterie Propionibacterium kožní komenzálové, může být jejich snížený výskyt na postižené kůži způsoben tím, že dochází k narušení jejich přirozeného životního prostředí. Výskyt bakterií rodu Staphylococcus je bez znalosti jejich druhového zastoupení obtížné interpretovat. Pro kompletní představu o psoriatickém mikrobiomu se budeme v budoucnu zabývat také složením fungální mikrobioty.

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2019-02-13
17:44
Role mikrobioty v experimentálním myším modelu psoriázy
Jirásková Zákostelská, Zuzana ; Stehlíková, Zuzana ; Klimešová, Klára ; Rossmann, Pavel ; Dvořák, Jiří ; Novosádová, Iva ; Kostovčík, Martin ; Coufal, Štěpán ; Šrůtková, Dagmar ; Hudcovic, Tomáš ; Štěpánková, Renata ; Rob, F. ; Jůzlová, P. ; Herzogová, J. ; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena ; Kverka, Miloslav
Myší model psoriázy a gnotobiotické techniky jsou velmi důležitými nástroji pro pochopení, jakou roli hrají střevní a kožní mikrobiota v patogenezi psoriázy. V našich experimentech jsme ukázali, že bezmikrobní myši, stejně tak jako konvenční myši léčené antibiotiky, mají nižší míru kožního zánětu, než myši kontrolní. Léčba širokospektrými antibiotiky vedla u myší k dramatickým změnám ve složení střevní mikrobioty, především jsme pozorovali extenzivní nárůst řádu Lactobacillales. Abychom zodpověděli otázku, zda má řád Lactobacillales potenciální efekt na tíži kožního zánětu, monokolonizovali jsme myši kmenem L. plantarum WCFS1. Také tyto monokolonizované myši vykazovali nižší míru zánětu, než myši konvenční. Abychom ale porozuměli tomu, jestli je mikrobiální dysbióza příčinou či následkem onemocnění, je třeba mikrobiální kolonizaci dále analyzovat.

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2019-02-13
17:43
Effect of nanodiamond particles on neuronal tissue
Šimková, Veronika ; Benson, Veronika
High-Pressure High-Temperature nanodiamonds are considered to be highly biocompatible due to\ntheir low acute toxicity, which makes them suitable for biomedical applications. However, next to interaction with the cell membrane, nanoscale allows particles to penetrate the plasma membrane and even accumulate in the cell cytoplasm. Recently it brought up questions regarding sustainable nanoparticle application in vivo and potential toxicity hazards. The neuronal tissue consists of neurons and glial cells, and it is separated by a bloodbrain barrier from the peripheral blood system. Neurons are nerve cells forming a complex network of synapses that carry signals in the brain. The neurons are nourished and protected by glial cells. This project aims to find out whether nanodiamonds pass the blood-brain barrier when applied intravenously as a drug carrier and whether they directly interact with the neuronal tissue.

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2019-02-13
17:43
Nanofiber dressing consisting of antisense rna-functionalized nanodiamonds for therapy of non-healing wounds in diabetic individuals
Neuhoferová, Eva ; Petráková, V. ; Vocetková, K. ; Kindermann, Marek ; Křivohlavá, Romana ; Benson, Veronika
Non-healing wounds are serious complication in diabetic patients and represent an attractive challenge for development of suitable carrier system possessing constant and localized release of therapeutic biomolecule into the wound without any undesired side effects. Given the fact that these non-healing wounds are result of impaired balance in metalloproteinases synthesized by immune cells residing the wounds, gene therapy offering knock down of such enzymes is of great interest. \nHere we challenged a development of functional and biocompatible wound dressing enabling controlled release of trackable carrier loaded with therapeutic siRNA. Our dressing consists of scaffold from degradable polymer nanofibers enriched with fluorescent nanodiamond particles (FND). We have previously shown the nanodiamond particles are great carriers for antisense RNAs. Their advantages represent high biocompatibility, stable luminescence giving us the possibility to track the carrier system in the wound, and effective release of antisense RNA in the wound. Embedding of nanodiamond-siRNA systems into nanofiber scaffold enables continuous release of siRNA and maintaining the stable siRNA concentration in the wound site resulting in a promotion of wound healing. \nWe developed FND-siRNA complexes specific to MMP-9 that efficiently inhibit the expression of target MMP-9 mRNA. The complexes were embedded into core/shell nanofibers from PVA and PCL, visualized by confocal microscopy, and characterized by electron microscopy. Real-time PCR was used to assess the silencing effect of siRNA that has been delivered to target murine fibroblasts by FND released from nanofiber dressing. Nanofiber system with embedded FNDs was applied on wounds in diabetic animal models to evaluate its suitability regarding short and long term toxicity, efficacy, and handling in vivo. \n

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2019-02-13
17:43
Nanodiamonds as an innovative system for intracellular delivery of mirna-34a inprostatic cancer therapy
Bitti, G. ; Abate, M. ; Neuhoferová, Eva ; Kindermann, Marek ; Petráková, V. ; Boccellino, M. ; Quagliuolo, L. ; Filová, Eva ; Benson, Veronika ; Caraglia, M. ; Amler, Evžen
The microRNA(miRNA)-34a is an important regulator of tumor suppression. It controls the expression of several target proteins involved in cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis, and antagonizes processes that are necessary for basic cancer cell viability as well as cancer stemness, metastasis, and chemoresistance. It is downregulated in numerous cancer types, including prostatic cancer, and inhibits malignant growth by repressing genes involved in various oncogenic signaling pathways. Given the anti-oncogenic activity of miR-34a, here we proved the substantial benefits of a new therapeutic concept based on nanotechnology delivery of miRNA mimics. In order to monitor the miRNA-34a replacement, we used a fluorescent nanodiamond particles (FND) system with linked miRNA-34a mimic, which was delivered to PC3 and DU145 prostatic cancer cell lines. We used functionalized nanodiamonds coated with polyethylenimine to transfer miRNA-34a into PC3 and DU145 prostatic cancer cell lines and we measured the zeta-potential of these complexes before using them for in vitro experiments. A replacement of miRNA-34 was observed by monitoring levels of miRNA-34 via real-time PCR. Moreover, our in vitro experiments demonstrated that miRNA-34a replacement, using this FND delivery system, decreased viability and induced apoptosis in prostatic cancer cell lines. Our findings suggest the replacement of oncosuppressor miRNA-34a provides an effective strategy for cancer therapy and the FND-based delivery systems seems to be an excellent strategy for a safe and effective targeting of the tumor.

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2019-01-07
14:42
Biodegradace aktivních farmaceutických látek termotolerantním biokatalyzátorem
Palyzová, Andrea ; Marešová, Helena
Charakterizace růstových vlastností kmenů/směsné kultury mikroorganismů v minerálním mediu při vyšších teplotách. Stanovení biodegradačního potenciálu termotolerantních kmenů/směsné kultury pro residuální koncentrace farmak v prostředí. \n\n

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