National Repository of Grey Literature 126 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Community vermicomposting within student dormitories
Lipan, Andrej ; Innemanová, Petra (advisor) ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (referee)
Through the Green Study Room pilot project, the thesis explores the integration of a circular bio-waste management model at the Otava College under the administration of Charles University. The thesis describes the circular economy as an essential method for the efficient management of bio-waste, which is supported in particular by legislation and strategic goals for sustainable development of states, cities and institutions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the awareness and interest of students in establishing a community vermicomposting site. The reconstruction of the study room creates a space to prevent the generation of biodegradable waste on the dormitory premises. Vermicomposting was used as an eco-friendly approach that takes advantage of earthworm's natural ability to convert organic waste into nutrient-rich compost. The establishment of a community shared study room sets the stage for ongoing projects in the areas of centralized bio-waste management, student education, and social-psychological phenomena associated with the transition to a more sustainable society. It also creates an ideal space for seminars, workshops and activities of the university in the field of improving the living standards of students staying at Otava College. The incorporation of the community...
Analysis of organic pollutants and micropollutants in landfill leachates
Poslušná, Markéta ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Innemanová, Petra (referee)
The stated aim of this thesis was the quantitative and qualitative analysis of relevant organic pollutants and micropollutants in Czech and Danish landfill leachate. Point sampling of liquid and solid samples (sediments) were taken from the landfill water sumps or from their vicinity. Sediments were collected only at Czech landfills. The Danish and Czech landfill leachate samples were compared with each other due to their different histories. Czech landfill leachate were found to contain higher concentrations of detected organic pollutants than in Denmark. The detected concentrations for the sum of 21 PFASs in the landfill leachate ranged from 956.5- 11 011.3 ng/l for the Czech landfill leachate samples. The measured concentrations of sum 14 PFAS ranged from 414.5 to 2 589.3 ng/l for the Danish landfill leachate samples. Concentrations in Czech landfill leachate for the sum of 24 PPCPs ranged from 131.3 to 27 471.4 ng/l. For the Danish samples, concentrations ranging from 122.6 to 12 351.5 ng/l (for the sum of 11 PPCPs) were measured. PCBs were analysed in both liquid and solid samples. In all liquid samples they were below the limit of quantification, therefore they were analysed in sediment from Czech landfills, where values from LOQ-20.9 mg/kg (sum of PCBs) were determined. This work represents...
Endocrine-disruptive effects of bisphenol A and other representatives of bisphenols
Kromková, Lucia ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Vítků, Jana (referee)
Xenoestrogens are substances of anthropogenic origin that disrupt the human endocrine system. This work deals with bisphenol A, a substance found in plastics all around us, and its effect on the human reproductive system. As the toxicity of bisphenol A is gradually being proven, its production is regulated by legislation, and therefore bisphenol A is being replaced by other derivatives. This work focuses only on the 7 most widespread bisphenol derivatives - S, F, E, B, AP and AF. The endocrine-disrupting effect of bisphenols is discussed from carefully selected relevant studies with an emphasis on the last 5 years (2018-2023) and compiled into clear tables. It turns out that bisphenol AP has the least endocrine disruption per organism, while bisphenol AF and bisphenol S have the highest. In in vitro and in vivo studies, bisphenol A has different concentrations that influence disruptiveness, which indicates the interaction of bisphenol A with other factors in the organism. The greatest risk to humanity is the proven cocktail effect of bisphenol A and transgenerational transmission. Key words: endocrine disruptors, xenoestrogens, bisphenol A, in vitro, bisphenol derivatives, in vivo
Priority pharmaceutical micropollutants in the context of the Czech Republic and the Water Framework Directive draft
Stonawski, Eva ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Klusoň, Petr (referee)
One of the major global environmental problems is the pollution by priority micropollutants. These are substances that can have a negative impact on the environment and human health even at relatively low concentrations. Their identification and subsequent regulation on an international level is essential for prevention of the negative effects of these substances. This thesis focused on the assessment of relevance of the proposal of Water Framework Directive in relation to pharmaceuticals and related substances in the context of the situation in the Czech Republic. The analysed input data comprised of results of data monitoring from the Vltava River Basin and information on the distribution of pharmaceuticals from the State Institute for Drug Control between years 2016 and 2022. The data was collected from two sampling points that are situated right before the confluence with the Elbe River. The average of the concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) and without outliers was considered, thus creating a model considering the maximum contamination load. On the basis of this model and information about individual substances, the relevance of the draft WFD for the Czech Republic was assessed. The result of the monitoring showed that during the monitoring period, none of the NECs of the...
Perfluorinated and polyfluorinated substances in ski waxes
Hrubý, Martin ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Semerád, Jaroslav (referee)
Perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) represent a group of thousands of anthropogenically produced substances. The strong bonding of carbon and fluorine gives these compounds unique properties, which have been used in ski waxes, among other applications. There is limited data on the specific PFAS used in wax production. This is due not only to the difficulty of analysis but also to the reluctance of manufacturers to disclose this information. The application of ski waxes has been associated with increased PFAS concentrations in the blood and some lung problems. Because of their persistence in ski areas, PFAS can be found in snow, soil, animals and plants. Although there is a gradual ban on the production and use of these substances, the issue of PFAS in ski waxes continues. This paper focuses on particular aspects of the issue. Key words: perfluorinated and polyfluorinated substances, PFAS, PFOA, ski waxes
Microplastics and their effects on the metabolism of animal cells
Fiedlerová, Gabriela ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Microplastics are tiny particles smaller than 5 mm in size found in various environments, including seas, rivers and soil. These particles can be intentionally produced as part of cosmetic products or formed by the breakdown of larger plastic objects. Microplastics represent a serious threat to the environment and animals and could eventually reach humans through the food chain. This thesis deals with a critical and synthetic overview of the literature related to the influence of microplastics on the metabolism of animal cells. The thesis also considers the experimental conditions under which the data were obtained. In particular, factors such as the tested microplastics' shape, size and ageing are critically evaluated as these aspects are often neglected in the literature. Current knowledge shows that microplastics accumulate in the bodies of animals and cause physical and metabolic damage, inflammation, disruption of energy metabolism, protein metabolism and amino acid and lipid metabolism. The most serious effects of microplastics can be considered to be the formation of oxygen radicals, neurotoxicity, disruption of gametogenesis and offspring development.
Possibilities of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) removal in drinking water treatment plants and their occurrence in drinking water sources in the Czech Republic
Čermáková, Lenka ; Fialová, Kateřina ; Prokopová, Michaela ; Semerád, Jaroslav ; Petříček, Radim ; Pivokonská, Lenka ; Cajthaml, Tomáš ; Pivokonský, Martin
This summary research report was implemented within the project TAČR TJ04000212 program to support applied research ZÉTA „Possibilities of perfluorinated organic compounds (PFCs) removal in drinking water treatment plants and their occurrence in drinking water sources in the Czech Republic“. This report is addressed to water treatment plant operators and serves as a basic material for optimizing the coagulation / flocculation and adsorption process in water treatment. The report explains in detail the issue of removal of perfluorinated organic substances (PFCs) in water treatment, especially the process of adsorption in pilot plant conditions. This report will be used as a theoretical basis for the operation of the water treatment plant in Kutná Hora operated by the Water Management Company Vrchlice - Maleč, a. s.
Mixture toxicity of estrogenic endocrine disruptors in samples from the Czech Republic
Černá, Tereza ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Klusoň, Petr (referee) ; Šváb, Marek (referee)
The environment is contaminated by countless toxic chemicals of mainly anthropogenic origin; therefore, elucidating the impact of chemical mixtures is one of the biggest challenges of current research. Endocrine disruptors (EDs) acting through the oestrogenic nuclear receptor are typical representatives of the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition, which can be accurately predicted using the latest mathematical models. Oestrogenic activity and oestrogenic EDs have been detected in many matrices across the globe in biologically relevant concentrations; therefore, they are considered a high risk. The presence of synthetic steroids in the aquatic environment in units of ng/l can disrupt the hormonal pathways of individuals and subsequently cause fatal changes in whole populations. However, if the exposure is terminated, the ecosystem will recover in a few years. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to remove a large number of chemicals, including synthetic and natural oestrogenically active compounds; nevertheless, their occurrence in WWTP effluents and in sewage sludges is frequent. Therefore, WWTPs are considered significant sources of agricultural and water ecosystem pollution. This dissertation thesis focuses on the mixture toxicity of oestrogenic EDs and their occurrence in...
Advanced remediation technologies for recalcitrant pollutants
Lhotský, Ondřej ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šváb, Marek (referee) ; Chrastný, Vladislav (referee)
Advanced remediation technologies for recalcitrant pollutants Studium pokročilých sanačních technologií pro rekalcitrantní polutanty Dissertation thesis Ing. Ondřej Lhotský Abstract This study focuses primarily on the testing and optimization of methods based on modifications to, and the targeted enhancement of, natural microbial processes for the removal of recalcitrant pollutants. Pilot tests were conducted of these innovative methods at real contaminated sites and matrices, and their effectiveness was monitored in the relevant environments. The pilot tests generally confirmed the potential of the modifications and bioremediation technology combinations by revealing significant increases in the removal efficiency for a number of recalcitrant contaminants. The study provides a general summary of the issue of soil and rock environment contamination by recalcitrant contaminants and familiarizes the reader with bioremediation technologies and their optimization for the removal of recalcitrant contaminants. Subsequently, a theoretical introduction is provided of the methods applied in 4 pilot tests of optimized and combined remediation methods at real contaminated sites in the Czech Republic. The pilot tests are described in detail in publications 1, 2, 4 and 5. Publication 6 covers a pilot test conducted on...
Environmental aspects of wastewater treatment and reuse in nature based technologies
Šereš, Michal ; Cajthaml, Tomáš (advisor) ; Uhlík, Ondřej (referee) ; Hanč, Aleš (referee)
In recent years, the issue of appropriate and efficient approaches to wastewater management and its potential reuse has become increasingly important in view of the geographical conditions of Central Europe, where, until recently, the problems associated with climate change and drought may not have seemed so pressing at first sight. Increasingly, so-called nature-based water management solutions, which help to both clean the water and retain it in the landscape, are being proposed. In drier, especially arid areas, this topic has been under discussion for many years and several examples of larger-scale applications are available. In the Czech Republic, on the other hand, mainly pilot applications only have been considered to date. However, the potential of nature-based solutions such as constructed wetlands, denitrification bioreactors, artificial wetlands and so-called reed bed units, is considerable. The advantages lie mainly in the robustness of these systems and their ability to mimic and intensify the natural water purification processes that occur in nature. They can be applied to waters contaminated with common fecal pollution or with higher nutrient content, as well as to waters contaminated with various types of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, hormonally-active substances and...

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