Global Change Research Institute

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2020-03-19
09:41
Postupy tvorby aplikačních map se zohledněním variability agrochemických vlastností půdy a výnosové úrovně pozemků
Lukas, V. ; Neudert, L. ; Širůček, P. ; Kraus, M. ; Novák, J. ; Mezera, J. ; Zemek, František ; Pikl, Miroslav ; Žížala, D.
Metodika popisuje postupy tvorby aplikačních map na základě digitálního mapování půdy a z výsledků půdního vzorkování a způsob stanovení dávky variabilní aplikace hnojiv s ohledem na stav zásobenosti půd přístupnými živinami a plošnou nevyrovnanost výnosových úrovní v rámci jednotlivých pozemků. Současně zahrnuje výsledky porovnání těchto postupů s ohledem na celkové množství aplikovaných hnojiv a přesnost rozložení dávek v rámci půdních bloků.

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2020-02-28
11:29
Effect of exogenous application of growth regulators on the physiological parameters and the yield of winter wheat under drought stress
Barányiová, I. ; Klem, Karel ; Křen, J.
The field trial aimed to evaluate the effect of different growth regulators in winter wheat under growth stress was conducted in 2013/2014. Within this experiment following growth regulators and fungicide with growth regulation effect were used: Retacel extra R68 (chlormequat chloride 720 g/l), Moddus (trinexapac-ethyl 250 g/l), Cerone (ethephon 480 g/l), Amistar (strobulirin 250 g/l). These growth regulators were applied at growth stages between BBCH 31 and BBCH 59. The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of these regulators on the growth, development and yield of winter wheat when simulating the drought stress using experimental rain-out shelters. The attention was paid to assess the effect of exogenous application of growth regulators on the physiology and the yield of selected varieties of winter wheat under drought stress. From our preliminary results it can be concluded that almost all growth regulators increase the rate of CO2 assimilation and the stomatal conductance. Definitely positive effect on water use efficiency was found in fungicide treatment with growth regulation effect azoxystrobin. Under drought stress the decrease of chlorophyll content in leaves was found. Growth regulators CCC and trinexapac mitigate the decline of chlorophyll content caused by drought in the upper leaves but rather increased the impact in older (lower) leaves. Fungicide azoxystrobin alleviates the decrease of chlorophyll caused by drought in all leaves. The results show that all regulators increased yield, which demonstrate a positive effect under dry conditions because the vegetation season was very dry and lodging did not occur. Furthermore, the most pronounced mitigation of drought stress was found for strobilurin and partly also trinexapac. Results of field experiments can contribute to mitigating the impact of drought on yield formation and quality of winter wheat production in the realization of biological potential of wheat genotypes.

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2020-02-28
11:29
Metodika hodnocení biotopů AOPK ČR 2017
Seják, J. ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Petříček, V. ; Prokopová, Marcela ; Cudlín, Ondřej ; Holcová, D. ; Kaprová, K. ; Melichar, J. ; Škarková, P.
Metodika hodnocení biotopů AOPK ČR 2017 je novelizace metody hodnocení a oceňování biotopů ČR, vytvořené Českým ekologickým ústavem pro MŽP (Seják, Dejmal a kol., 2003). Principem metodiky je expertní hodnocení typů biotopů České republiky, které využívá vybrané parametry, založené převážně na hodnotách biodiverzity různých úrovní. Peněžní hodnocení je založené na analýze nákladů na revitalizační opatření. Metodu lze využít k hodnocení a peněžnímu ocenění ekologické kvality biotopů a krajinných segmentů s praktickým využitím při kvantifikaci ekologické újmy, ale také při porovnávání různých alternativ návrhů revitalizace krajiny.

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2020-02-28
11:29
Assessment of the Estimates of Sun-induced Fluorescence in large masses of Vegetation
Rodriguez-Moreno, Fernando ; Zemek, František ; Pikl, Miroslav
The remote estimation of the sun-induced fluorescence has been successful in fields in which, in addition to the measurements for the verification, there is also a detailed characterization\nof the atmosphere, besides being an optimal environment, flat surface without interferences. Revealing the fluorescence is a process of precision because the minimum error tolerated forces each element of the chain to fulfill its function exactly and consistently. The detailed monitoring of a flight line is not feasible, hence the uncertainty in this process and the reason for the series of publications with the new estimation of fluorescence.

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2020-02-12
19:10

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2020-02-12
19:10
Souhrnná výzkumná zpráva Aalto 1903
Hanuš, Jan ; Fabiánek, Tomáš ; Fajmon, Lukáš
Within the airborne hyperspectral campaign for a Finnish university Aalto University were scanned two locations - Hyytiälä (FI) - Järvselja (EST). The scanned processed data is used for other scientific purposes.\nAbstrakt: V rámci letecké hyperspektrální kampaňe pro Finskou univerzitu Aalto-yliopisto byly nasnímány dvě lokality - Hyytiälä (FI) - Järvselja (EST). Předaná zpracovaná data jsou používány pro další vědecké účely.

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2020-02-12
19:10

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2020-02-05
19:10
WINTER RECREATION AND SNOW
Zahradníček, Pavel ; Rožnovský, J. ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Farda, Aleš ; Brzezina, J.
Climate assessment should not be limited to just statistical analysis, but also look at relationships in data and its uses in other areas of everyday life. One such area is tourism and recreation, which is also to a great extent influenced by the weather. This paper focuses on the winter season and the related possibilities for tourism. One of the key factors is snow conditions of the particular place. This analysis takes into account the amount of new snow and maximum snow depth and changes in these parameters as a result of the current global climate change. Especially in the last 15 years, years with less snow are more frequent and this is especially seen at highest altitudes of the country. The study also analyzed outputs of climate models with regards to winter season, including calculations of the number of melting days.

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2020-02-05
19:10
USE OF NORWAY SPRUCE AS ADMIXTURE IN SUBURBAN FORESTS AT LOWER ALTITUDES
Novosadová, K. ; Knott, R. ; Szatniewska, J.
In suburban forestry there is a need not only to manage a maximum financial result, but also to support recreational and aesthetic forest functions. Thus, these forests need professional treatments in the form of proper silvicultural methods to maintain stand stability. One of these methods is cultivation of mixed stands with Norway spruce. This study examines the mortality of spruce growing in stands in lower forest vegetation zones with time series of 50 years and the changes in biomass production in young variously mixed stands in three different vegetation zones. According to the results, it is beneficial to grow spruce in the range from 5 to 10% of admixture in stand establishment stage. Due to silvicultural treatments and inter species interactions, spruce representation in a stand may increase to 30% in the mature stands. Spruce trees tended this way in young age partly will be outcompeted by other species, but the remaining individuals will adapt to the existing environmental conditions and thus the whole stand will be more stable. Biomass production of spruce trees depends on its representation in the stand. The higher the spruce admixture, the lower will be average spruce tree biomass. The study indicated that in young stands up to 30% of spruce representation, its biomass was up to 100% greater than in spruce monocultures.

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2020-02-05
19:10
Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen nutrition and UV-exclusion on yield, aboveground biomass and root development in winter wheat and spring barley
Rattanapichai, W. ; Klem, Karel
Within the manipulation experiment in open top chambers (Domaninek near Bystrice nad Pernstejnem) that allow simulation of elevated concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) (expected by the end of this century700 mu mol mol(-1)) and exclusion of solar UV radiation, the interactive effects of these environmental drivers together with nitrogen application were studied. Aboveground biomass at the time of harvest, grain yield and root area were studied in winter wheat (variety Bohemia) and spring barley (variety Bojos). From three replications of each treatment were the roots of four plants dug out from the soil and gently washed. Photos of roots taken using the digital camera were analysed by image processing software Image J (plugin SmartRoot). The result showed that the elevation of [CO2] increased the above ground biomass and grain yield. High level of nitrogen increased the stimulatory effect of [CO2] on the above-ground biomass and grain yield. Also UV exclusion stimulated the effect of the evaluated [CO2] on above-ground biomass and grain yield. UV exclusion resulted in higher root area than the treatment of non-exclusion of UV.

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