Ústav výzkumu globální změny

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2017-04-28
14:22

Úplný záznam
2017-04-28
14:22
Highly time resolved measurement of atmospheric elemental and organic carbon at a typical background site in Central Europe.
Mbengue, Saliou ; Fusek, M. ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Holoubek, Ivan
Atmospheric organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon play an important role in atmospheric chemistry, climate change and public health. There have been relatively few studies dealing with EC and OC in rural background sites which are less influenced by urban and industrial emissions. Nevertheless, measurements at background areas are important for understanding the transport and transformation characteristics of anthropogenic air pollutants, and their effects on various aspects of regional and global environment changes. In this study, we focus on variability of EC and OC concentrations (considering various day categories and seasons) from a rural background site which is representative for Central European rural areas.\n

Úplný záznam
2017-04-04
15:25
Predikční modely výkonu fotovoltaických a větrných elektráren na základě modelových výstupů z modelu ALADIN a modelu IFS
Farda, Aleš ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Zahradníček, Pavel ; Rajdl, Kamil ; Meitner, Jan
Byl studován výkon a potenciál denních předpovědí výroby energie z obnovitelných zdrojů na území České republiky. Výzkum byl zaměřen na roli chyb předpovědí jednotlivých numerických předpovědních modelů a byl zkoumán dopad ensemblové metody jako prostředku ke snížení chyby předpovědí s cílem zvýšit ekonomickou hodnotu těchto předpovědí pro konečné uživatele.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Uhlíková bilance urbánního ekosystému
Pavelka, Marian
Předmětem této zprávy je shrnutí výstupů realizovaných v rámci projektů spolupráce Ústavu výzkumu globální změny AV ČR, v. v. i. se Statutárním městem Brno a Hvězdárnou a planetáriem Brno, příspěvkovou organizací, které byly realizovány v rámci dvou ročních projektů Uhlíková bilance urbánního ekosystému 2015 a Uhlíková bilance urbánního ekosystému 2016, které byly uskutečněny v roce 2015 a v roce 2016.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Effect of nutrients deficiencies on root architecture and growth of winter wheat
Rattanapichai, W. ; Klem, Karel
The study of the effects of N, P, K deficiencies on root architecture and growth was tested in phenotyping platform with winter wheat (Bohemia variety). The experiment was arranged with 4 treatments: Complete nutrient, Without N, Without P and Without K. The root were grown on the surface of vertically fixed black filter paper sheets (30x60cm), covered from both sides by black plastic sheets (PVC-P). The system was setup with a micro-irrigation channel in the top of sheets to ensure circulation of hydroponic medium as hydroponic system. Eighteen days after transplanting, we took the root images by the standard RGB digital camera. To evaluate the root architecture parameters the "SmartRoot" software was used. The results showed that nutrient deficiency had effect on root architecture of winter wheat. N deficiency increase in total seminal root and lateral root length and root/shoot ratio, while P deficiency resulted in increase of mean root diameter, total root area when compared to the control. N deficiency also decreased root and shoot dry weight and total leaf area. However, nutrient deficiency slightly decreased lateral density. There was a slight effect of K deficiency on root architecture when compared to the complete nutrient application. The increasing of leaf dry weight was related with the increased of root dry weight.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Monitoring of water use, druought and yield impacts of winter wheat using imaginery from satellites
Jurečka, František ; Anderson, M. ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Semerádová, Daniela ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Hain, C. ; Gao, F. ; Yang, Y. ; Žalud, Zdeněk
Remote sensing can be very useful tool for drought monitoring, providing valuable information about yield-limiting moisture conditions and crop response under current climate conditions. In this study the Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model was used. The ALEXI model uses the morning surface temperature (LST) rise and provides information on the surface moisture status. In this paper correlations between yields and satellite indicators of crop water use or evapotranspiration (ET) were studied for the period 2002-2014. Correlations were studied for winter wheat at district scale in Vysocina, Jihomoravsky and Olomoucky regions since winter wheat is one of the traditional and most important crops grown in these regions. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) was used for these correlations as an ET-based index. Time series of Pearson correlation coefficient (r) computed between ESI and winter wheat yields at district scale were analysed. Strongest correlations are associated with districts within the Southern Moravian lowlands in Jihomoravsky and Olomoucky region, where frequency of occurrence of severe drought was highest over the period of record. Severe drought resulted in significant yield impacts, particularly in years 2003 and 2012. Correlations tend to be lower over the highlands districts of Vysocina and surroundings. In these districts, yields are more temperature than moisture limited and were more stable over the period of record.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Effect of temeperature stress and water shortage on thousand grain weight of selected winter wheat varietes
Hlaváčová, Marcela ; Pohanková, Eva ; Klem, Karel ; Trnka, Miroslav
The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of high temperatures and water shortage during anthesis on thousand grain weight (TGW) of two winter wheat varieties (Tobak and Pannonia). In addition, numbers of grains per spike were also assessed. The six growth chambers were used to simulate heat stress conditions within following gradient of temperature maxima: 26 degrees C (control chamber), 29, 32, 35, 38 and 41 degrees C. The relative humidity (RH) course and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity were controlled via protocols. Additionally, drought stressed (dry) and well-watered (wet) treatments were established within each growth chamber. The plants were removed from the growth chambers after 14 days and they were left until a full maturity, exposed to actual weather conditions. The TGW at 14% moisture were evaluated for particular treatments within both winter wheat varieties. TGW was generally more affected by high temperatures under drought stress than in well-watered conditions. The results revealed that Pannonia TGW was much more affected by the water deficiency in combination with high temperature (particularly 38 and 41 degrees C) than Tobak TGW.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Agroklimatická analýza výhledů změn výchozích výrobních podmínek pro zemědělské subjekty a související dopady do systému bonitace půdy
Trnka, Miroslav ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Balek, Jan ; Semerádová, Daniela ; Dubrovský, Martin ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Žalud, Zdeněk
Předmětem této zprávy je vyhodnocení analýz zpracovaných v rámci smluvní výzkumné spolupráce zadané v rámci řešení projektu číslo EHP-CZ02-OV-1-039-2015 s názvem „Komplexní plánovací, monitorovací, informační a vzdělávací nástroje pro adaptaci území na dopady klimatické změny s hlavním zřetelem na zemědělské a lesnické hospodaření v krajině“ financovaného z fondu EHP 2009 - 2014 programu CZ02 - Biodiverzita a ekosystémové služby/. Studie se zaměřuje na území Jihomoravského kraje (JmK) a navazuje na zprávu hodnotící dopady očekávaných klimatických podmínek zpracovanou pro výše uvedený projektu v říjnu 2016. Podobně jako předchozí studie byla i tato část zpracována na základě 5 vybraných globálních cirkulačních modelů (GCM) a to pro dva emisní scénáře a období 2021-2040. Protože detailní popis použitých scénářů obsahuje předešlá zpráva omezujeme se v tomto textu pouze na nejdůležitější výstupy relevantní pro JmK.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Drought periods in 2014
Zahradníček, Pavel ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Semerádová, Daniela ; Farda, Aleš
The first half of year 2014 was characterized by the occurrence of extreme weather. Episode without precipitation were alternated with thunderstorms, temperature were mostly above normal and was occurred first heat wave. The year began with a very mild winter, when amount of snow was only 27% of long term average and in agricultural region South Moravia only about 10%. The winter temperature was more than 2 degrees C higher than normal. March and April were characterized by low sum of precipitation mainly again in South Moravia, both months were about 70% of long term average. March and April temperature were significantly above normal (March about more than about 4 degrees C and April more than 2 degrees C). In contrast May was cold and rainy. In the middle of the month there were persistent rainfall, which caused an increase of river levels and flooding several areas. June was again very dry. These weather conditions led to the strong dry episodes during first half of the year.

Úplný záznam
2017-03-27
15:27
Physiological equivalent temperature as an indicator of the UHI effect with the city of Prague as an example
Zahradníček, Pavel ; Žák, M. ; Skalák, Petr
Description of an Urban Heat Island (UHI) using the difference in air temperature is one of the world's most studied characteristics. If, however, one wants to express how the temperature is perceived by humans, one must consider the overall effect of air temperature, wind speed, air humidity and radiation flows, which is expressed using temperature bioclimatological indexes. One of them is the socalled physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which is used for quantification of the overall effect of meteorological parameters combined with human energetic balance and which is perceived by humans. The RayMan (MATZARAKIS et al. 2007, 2010) microscale models in the city of Prague were used to simulate biometeorological conditions describing the effect on humans using PET.

Úplný záznam