National Repository of Grey Literature 80 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Methodology for rapid, comprehensive, independent decision-making on the need, effectiveness and interaction of adaptation measures in river basins under climate change
Fischer, Milan ; Zeman, Evžen ; Vizina, A. ; Hanel, M. ; Bernsteinová, Jana ; Tachecí, P. ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Pavlík, P. ; Máca, P. ; Ghisi, Tomáš ; Rapantová, N. ; Bláhová, Monika ; Janál, P. ; Trnka, Miroslav
The aim of the methodology is to present methods for quantifying the impacts of projected climate change on the water balance when applying adaptation measures in the Czech Republic for the next few decades. Adaptation measures should contribute to the sustainability of the water balance in all major user segments of water use and management in the basin. The main principle is the use of hydrological models to transform climate change scenarios into time series of hydrological conditions and to quantify the overall water balance of the basin using different types of adaptation measures and their implementation over time. Special emphasis is placed on the evaluation of combinations of adaptation measures that cannot be analysed by simplified methods. The methodology is designed to search for the optimal combination of adaptation measures in the assessed catchment. The proposed approach eliminates the shortcomings of effectiveness assessment from the perspective of the exclusive user of the water resource, as the evaluation of the effectiveness of adaptation measures is carried out in the form of a multi-criteria analysis of the evaluation of the outputs of the simulation model for predicting the water balance in the whole basin. This methodology can be used to assess different adaptation measures in all basic segments of water users: agriculture, forestry, energy, water management and others.
Methodology for determining the main disturbances in the water management balance and optimizing adaptation measures in the conditions climate change
Fischer, Milan ; Zeman, Evžen ; Vizina, A. ; Hanel, M. ; Bernsteinová, Jana ; Tachecí, P. ; Štěpánek, Petr ; Pavlík, P. ; Máca, P. ; Ghisi, Tomáš ; Rapantová, N. ; Bláhová, Monika ; Janál, P. ; Trnka, Miroslav
Ongoing climate change is causing a global increase in air temperature. While this is leading to an acceleration of the global hydrological cycle, and therefore a global increase in precipitation, the spatiotemporal variability in precipitation is much more complicated. While temperature in the Czech Republic shows a consistently increasing trend similar to that of surrounding countries and the planet as a whole, precipitation can be simplified that long-term averages of annual totals remain and are likely to remain very similar in the coming decades. Rising air temperatures inherently bring increased evaporative demand of the atmosphere and, for the same precipitation, a lower ratio of precipitation to evaporation, i.e. the climatic water balance shows a negative trend.
How climate change affects biotopes protected under Natura 2000 in southern Bohemia?
Vaškovský, Adam ; Křenová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Trnka, Miroslav (referee)
Warnings of the intensity and widespread negative impacts of ongoing climate change are becoming more urgent. EU countries have created a unique network Natura 2000 to protect Europe's biodiversity and are legally obliged to protect the sites so that their conservation targets do not deteriorate. The key question is whether the static Natura 2000 system will continue to fulfil its purpose in the future, or whether climate change will lead to significant losses of European biodiversity. To date, there are still very few studies that address the modelling of climate change impacts on Natura 2000 sites. In this paper, using a new method combining climate envelope models with procedures applied to assess climate change risks to agroecosystems, I assessed the impact of climate change on eight selected natural habitat types (NHTs) occurring in south Bohemia. Agroclimatological indicators generated by the AgriClim model were used as predictors of the occurrence of suitable climate for NHTs. For modelling, I used three machine learning algorithms (generalized additive model, artificial neural network and random forest) and two ensemble learning techniques (averaging and stacking), of which I chose random forest as the most suitable for the resulting predictions. The modelling results show that for the...
Integrated national-scale assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture: the case of the Czech Republic
Arbelaez Gaviria, Juliana ; Boere, E. ; Havlík, P. ; Trnka, Miroslav
In recent years, investigating climate change impacts in the agricultural sector at the national level has become a priority for adaptation decision-making. Most of these studies quantify the impacts\nof biophysical effects and often ignore the cross-sectoral interactions and economic effects on relative competitiveness, international trade, global food supply, and food prices for the Czech Republic. Ignoring future productivity changes globally under climate change scenarios can underestimate or overestimate climate change impacts at the national level. Here, we use GLOBIOM-CZE, a global economic model, as part of a climate change impact assessment framework to evaluate the impacts on the Czech agricultural sector in terms of environmental and economic indicators. By comparing with the baseline, the ensemble of scenarios suggests a decrease in crop area and production while increasing grassland, positively affecting livestock production by mid-century. Corn and barley show the most adverse response in production and area, while rapeseed increases under scenario RCP 8.5 with CO2 fertilization effect. Livestock products production is projected to increase, especially bovine meat and milk, as within RCP 8.5, no constraints are placed on growing greenhouse gas emissions.
Short-term application of elevated temperature and drought influences the isotopic composition of winter wheat grains
Pernicová, Natálie ; Urban, Otmar ; Čáslavský, Josef ; Klem, Karel ; Trnka, Miroslav
The study aimed to determine the differences in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope ratios in grains of three winter wheat varieties grown under optimal and stress conditions. We found that the wheat variety has a significant effect on both δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios. Short-term (nine days) exposure to drought and high temperature during the heading or stem extension development phase significantly enhanced δ13C values, but only high temperature affected δ15N values. Enhanced δ15N values support the assumption that global warming causes a higher representation of the 15N isotope in plants. Moreover, significant interactive effects of temperature and water availability on the values of both isotopes were found implying that C and N metabolisms have been altered under the investigated stress conditions. We conclude that δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios of cereal grains are sensitive indicators of stress conditions, even short-term ones
Modelling the onset of phenological phases of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Dížková, Petra ; Bartošová, Lenka ; Hájková, L. ; Balek, Jan ; Bláhová, Monika ; Bohuslav, Jakub ; Pohanková, Eva ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
The onset of phenological phases of plant species is influenced mainly by air temperature. Each phenophase has its temperature limits (base temperature and temperature sum), which must be reached for each phase to occur. With knowledge of these limits, it is possible to predict the onset of phenological phases in localities where only meteorological data are available and also in future climate conditions. In this work, we used phenological ground-based data from 33 stations within the Czech Republic to calculate the most relevant meteorological predictors. PhenoClim software was used for phenological and meteorological data calibration and modelling. The smallest error that allows us to predict the term of the phenophases was found for the heading of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), as the best predictor was the maximum daily temperature and the statistical error was 3.6 days.
Yield formation parameters of winter wheat under two CO2 levels in water sufficient and depleted environment
Hlaváčová, Marcela ; Klem, Karel ; Veselá, Barbora ; Findurová, Hana ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Smutná, P. ; Horáková, V. ; Škarpa, P. ; Trnka, Miroslav
Agricultural production faces with ongoing climate that in Europe takes form of changing seasonal precipitation pattern with more frequent drought spells. These changes come on top of rising air temperature and did and will affect productivity as well as onset and duration of key developmental stages for yield formation of major staple crops such as wheat. In order to ensure stable agricultural production and satisfy demand of the increasing humanpopulation, it is crucial to know responses of major field crops to these abiotic stress factors to assess suitability of genotypes to specific environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate final yield formation parameters of five winter wheat genotypes cultivated in pots and exposed to two different levels of CO2 concentrations (400 ppm as ambient and 700 ppm as elevated CO2 concentrations) and two water treatments (well- watered control and drought-stressed plants). Theexperimental treatments were set up in growth chambers from the end of heading stage (BBCH 59)to the beginning of ripening stage (BBCH 71) to simulate the conditions under future climate. The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration led to: (1) mitigation of reduction in final yield formation parameters of drought-stressed plants compared to those of control, (2) enhanced results of drought-stressed treatments compared to those of drought-stressed treatments exposed to the ambient CO2 concentration. Pannonia NS was found out as the less responsive genotype to the exposition of CO2 concentration (no statistically significant differences among ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in all yield formation parameters were identified). On contrary, harvest index of genotype Bohemia was identified as the most sensitive parameter in response to drought stress as well as to the atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Comparing of observed and simulated field crop production in HERMES2Go model at Hněvčeves locality
Bohuslav, Jakub ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Madaras, M. ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
The main objective of this study was calibration and testing of crop growth model \nHERMES2Go under long–term field experiment in Hněvčeves locality (coordinate 50°18´N, 15°43´E, \naltitude 265 m.a.s.l.). Observed data of yields and the other parameters like a weather data, soil \nparameters, management practice, phenology phases etc. monitored in last 38 years was used for model \ncalibration. Input parameters were available for 4 different fertilizer practices: i) control, ii) manure, iii) \nmineral fertilizer and iv) manure together with mineral fertilizer on each plot. Observed data are \navailable for yields of main and by–product and above ground biomass. The main grown crops were \nsugar beet, spring barley, winter wheat, silage maize, oat and alfalfa. Outputs of the model for main \nproduct are relatively accurate, but values of by–product requires additional calibration parameters \nsettings together with above–ground biomass.
Prevention of the occurrence and spread of natural fires in the immediate vicinity\nsurface sources of drinking water, including methods for estimating the consequences\npossible occurrence
Beranová, J. ; Čermák, Petr ; Albert, J. ; Cienciala, Emil ; Zatloukal, V. ; Kudláčková, Lucie ; Novotný, Jan ; Zeman, Evžen ; Kuráž, M. ; Vizina, Adam ; Trnka, Miroslav
The aim of the methodology is to create a pragmatic procedure for assessing the risks of the occurrence and spread of natural fires\nin the immediate vicinity of surface sources of drinking water. Methods for estimation are proposed in the methodology\nconsequences of the occurrence of natural fires on the quality of surface water, the prognosis of the change in the risk of fires\ndue to climate change and the procedure for determining the risk of secondary pollution of reservoirs due to\nchanges in runoff conditions after a natural fire. On this basis, the methodology designs and diversifies\npreventive and operational measures.
Estimate of carbon sequestration in the Czech Republic - afforestation of arable land, change of forest management, wetlands renaturations and tree lanes
Hruška, Jakub ; Pavelka, Marian ; Chuman, Tomáš ; Oulehle, Filip ; Vindušková, O. ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Trnka, Miroslav
Report acconunted quantitetivly as well qualitativly (for the year 2050) carbon sequestration for afforestation of arable land, change of forest management, wetlands renaturations and tree lanes.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 80 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
10 TRNKA, Michal
2 Trnka, M.
2 Trnka, Marián
2 Trnka, Martin
1 Trnka, Matyáš
10 Trnka, Michal
1 Trnka, Milan
1 Trnka, Milan Bc.
1 Trnka, Miroslav (absolvent PEF)
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