Ústav přístrojové techniky

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2018-03-09
13:20
K-space trajectory calibration for improved precision of quantitative ultrashort echo time imaging
Latta, P. ; Starčuk jr., Zenon ; Gruwel, M. ; Tomanek, B.
Ultrashort echo time imaging (UTE) is often the method of choice for measurement of short-lived T2 signals from biological tissues. The UTE acquisition is based on radial or spiral sampling schemes which, in general, are sensitive to small discrepancies between prescribed and actual trajectories. Such errors are usually observed as image quality degradation, visible as ghosting or intensity variation. This is even more serious for quantitative applications when intensity variation can cause serious bias in the estimation of measured parameters such as proton density (PD). Here we investigate such behavior of UTE acquisition and demonstrate that proper calibration of the gradient channels could minimize these type of the errors. Phantom experiments proved the efficiency of the application trajectory calibration approach.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Resampling in magnetic resonance spectroscopy-A less model-dependent quantitation quality assessment method
Jabłoński, Michal ; Starčuková, Jana ; Starčuk jr., Zenon
In this paper we propose a novel method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) fitting quality assessment based on time domain resampling of acquired spectra and bootstrapping of the obtained results. The authors introduce two resampling strategies and example results are shown. The proposed method requires MRS data without averaging.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Efficient implementation of Stockwell Transform for real-time embedded processing of physiologic signals
Holmes, D. ; Pinto, S.C. ; Felton, Ch. ; Smítal, L. ; Leinveber, P. ; Jurák, Pavel ; Gilbert, B. ; Haider, C.
Physiologic monitoring enables scientists and physicians to study both normal and pathologic signals of the body. While wearable technologies are available today, many of these technologies are limited to data collection only. Embedded processors have minimal computational capabilities. We propose an efficient implementation of the Stockwell Transform which can enable real-time time-frequency analysis of biological signals in a microcontroller. The method is built upon the fact that the Stockwell Transform can be implemented as a compact filter bank with pre-computed filter taps. Additionally, due to the long tails of the gaussian windowing function, low amplitude filter taps can be removed. The method was implemented on a TI MSP430 processor. Simulated ECG data was fed into the processor to demonstrate performance and evaluate computational efficiency.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Hemodynamic modelling in the calf — A pilot study
Matějková, M. ; Jurák, Pavel ; Soukup, L. ; Halámek, Josef ; Viščor, Ivo ; Langer, P. ; Vondra, Vlastimil
With increasing age, the cardiovascular system loses its efficiency. The goal of this work was to investigate the hemodynamic system response to a head-up tilt test in two groups of different aged people. We used a model for describing this response in the right calf based on a non-invasive, non-occlusive, bioimpedance signal measurement technique. A decrease in the bioimpedance value in the calf during the head-up tilt test is associated with the accumulation of blood in the calf, which can be expressed by a model parameter. Subjects were examined in both a head-up tilt test and a supine position. 50 healthy non-smoking volunteers were divided into two groups according to age. The impedance signal during the tilt test for each subject was fitted by a model exponential function: Z0 model EF(t) =A exp(-t/B)+C, where Z0 model EF(t) is the calculated model of electrical impedance in the calf by an exponential function, A is the amplitude of impedance change, B is the time constant of the impedance decrease, C is the value of the steady state after the tilt test and t denotes time. A lower time constant B shows a faster filling of the vascular system in the investigated part. The Mann-Whitney test (p-value<;0.005) revealed that the time constant B for the older group was significantly lower than for the young group (145.24+/- 80.28 vs. 239.23+/-136.59 sec.). A lower time constant value means a faster response to blood filling in the lower limbs and directly reflects decreased vessel elasticity. This time constant was lower in the older group. The results show increased vessel stiffness in old age and could lead to a non-invasive evaluating the cardiovascular system state.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Biventricular pacing optimization by means of the dyssynchrony parameter
Jurák, Pavel ; Leinveber, P. ; Halámek, Josef ; Plešinger, Filip ; Postránecká, T. ; Lipoldová, J. ; Novák, M.
To improve Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), different interventricular delay (VVD) settings can be used. However, relatively small VVD induced hemodynamic changes cannot be measured by standard echocardiographic methods. The QRS complex duration (QRSd) is mostly the main criterion. Here we introduce a new dyssynchrony parameter (DYS) that is able to more accurately detect improved electrical synchrony. Methods: 12-lead 5 kHz ECG during 3-10 minute rest period was measured in 46 patients with CRT OFF and CRT ON with VVD 0 ms (CRT0) and -20 ms (CRT20). We detected QRSd and the dyssynchrony parameter DYS as the time difference between 500-1000 Hz averaged envelopes positions in the V1 and V6 leads in the QRS complex region. Results: 32 of 46 patients had a positive CRT response manifested by QRSd shortening and a DYS decrease. 28 of 32 patients had a positive LV pre-excitation effect: additional QRSd shortening of 4.7+/-.9 ms and a DYS decrease of 12.6+/-7.5 ms. The correlation coefficient of QRSd and DYS changes (CRT 0 vs CRT 20) was 0.23 and indicates information diversity. The DYS parameter differs from QRSd and provides a significantly higher response to VVdelay changes (p <; 0.001).

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2018-03-09
13:19
Optical fiber sensors for measurement strain and vibration
Mikel, Břetislav ; Helán, R. ; Buchta, Zdeněk ; Holík, M. ; Jelínek, Michal ; Číp, Ondřej
We present optical fiber sensors to measurement strain and vibration. The sensors are based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). We prepared construction of strain sensors with respect to its implementation on the outer surface of concrete structures and with compensation of potential temperature drifts. These sensors are projected with look forward to maximal elongation and strength which can be applied to the sensor. Each sensor contains two optical fibers with FBGs. One FBG is glued into the sensor in points of fixation which are in the line with mounting holes. This FBG is prestressed to half of measurement range, than the stretching and pressing can be measured simultaneously by one FBG. The second FBG is placed inside the sensor without fixation to measure temperature drifts. The sensor can be used to structure health monitoring.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Reverse Monte Carlo as MRS quantitation quality assessment
Jabłoński, Michal ; Starčuková, Jana ; Starčuk jr., Zenon
Data analysis of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) using quantitation algorithms, such as AQSES, QUEST, AMARES or LCModel produces estimates of relative metabolite concentrations and their precision, estimated as the Cramer Rao Lower Bounds (CRLB). This assessment does not guarantee the uniqueness of the fit, and thus is not a true representation of the concentration uncertainty. In this publication authors propose to verify the quality of fitting by Reverse Monte Carlo method, which is independent of the estimator and has weaker requirements on the solution and model accuracy.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Study of laser wobbling welding process through the radiation of plasma plume
Mrňa, Libor ; Horník, Petr ; Jedlička, Petr ; Pavelka, Jan
During laser welding with wobbling to the vector of the welding speed adds trivial movement of the beam in the shape of a circle or other shapes. Therefore, the laser beam moves with much higher current speeds than during normal welding. The melting of material on the leading edge of the keyhole occurs periodically. This fact is reflected in the character of the radiation of plasma plume over the keyhole. Experiments were conducted in which it was obtained spectrum of plasma plume radiation by using autocorrelation function for different parameters of circular wobbling (circle diameter, frequency) and for different materials. In the spectra are found the higher harmonic frequency of wobbling. The results were also compared with the radiation of the plasma plume during pulsed laser welding where the laser beam also periodically melts the leading edge.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:19
Phase and group refractive indices of air calculation by fitting\nof phase difference measured using a combination of laser and\nlow-coherence interferometry
Pikálek, Tomáš ; Šarbort, Martin ; Číp, Ondřej ; Pham, Minh Tuan ; Lešundák, Adam ; Pravdová, Lenka ; Buchta, Zdeněk
The air refractive index is an important parameter in interferometric length measurements, since it substantially\naffects the measurement accuracy. We present a refractive index of air measurement method based on monitoring\nthe phase difference between the ambient air and vacuum inside a permanently evacuated double-spaced cell. The cell is placed in one arm of the Michelson interferometer equipped with two light sources—red LED and HeNe laser, while the low-coherence and laser interference signals are measured separately. Both phase and group refractive indices of air can be calculated from the measured signals. The method was experimentally verified by\ncomparing the obtained refractive index values with two different techniques.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Noise behaviour of field emission cathode based on lead pencil graphite
Knápek, Alexandr ; Horáček, Miroslav ; Hrubý, František ; Šikula, J. ; Kuparowitz, T. ; Sobola, D.
The paper describes electrical noise of experimental field emission cathodes based on “polymer” pencil leads which have a high content of hybridized carbon with a low degree of surface oxidation and silicon monoxide (SiO). Charge transport within experimental samples is evaluated based on results provided by the noise spectroscopy method. The paper also briefly describes the experimental preparation method of graphite tips based on ion milling which allow obtaining ultrasharp tips of a diameter lower than 100 nm.

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