National Repository of Grey Literature 556 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Aberrant behavior, opioids and pain
Jirásková, Michaela ; Raudenská, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Neugebauer, Jan (referee)
UNIVERZITA KARLOVA 2. LÉKAŘSKÁ FAKULTA Ústav ošetřovatelství Michaela Jirásková Aberantní chování, opioidy a bolest Bakalářská práce Praha 2023 ABSTRACT Background: Objectives: The aim is to determine the frequency of risk of aberrant behavior based on screening and the actual incidence of aberrant the group of patients with chronic pain without opioid treatment. Methods: 30 patients with chronic non-cancer pain not using opioid analgesics and 30 patients with chronic non-cancer pain using opioid analgesics hospitalized at the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine Charles University and Motol University Hospital. Patients were presented with the following tests in paper form: Structured Interview, ORT, ET, COMM, SOAP-R, CADE AID. Respondents signed an informed consent form based on EC approval. The study was approved by the EC. Results: For socio-demographic and clinical variables, we used chi-square testing for statistical significance as appropriate and concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the opioid analgesic user group and the non-user group. When examining the effect of sociodemographic variables on quality of life in patients with chronic non-cancer pain compared to the effect of sociodemographic variables on the group of patients without...
Transgeneration transmission of trauma in individuals with substance addiction experiences
Havelková, Lucie ; Líbalová, Ivana (advisor) ; Dymešová, Gabriela (referee)
The diploma thesis deals with the manifestation of complex developmental trauma in the offspring of persons with experience of addiction to addictive substances and its potential transgenerational transmission. The aim of the theoretical part of the thesis is to describe substance addiction, complex developmental and collective trauma and their manifestations, including possible mechanisms of transgenerational transmission of trauma, with the help of literature. In the practical part, the research focuses on the topics of family relationships, childhood with an addicted parent, personal relationship to addictive substances and manifestations of trauma in adulthood. Due to the aim of the work, a qualitative research design was chosen, the data was collected by using a semi- structured interview and processed using the method of thematic analysis and open coding. In the practical part of the investigation, the level of traumatization among the respondents was examined using the CTQ-SF questionnaire. Subsequently, the respondents selected according to the given criteria were subjected to a semi-structured interview. Based on the practical part of the work and in agreement with literature, it can be stated that respondents living with a parent with alcohol addiction bear the consequences of these life...
Occupational therapy for patients with injuries associated with use of addictive substances
Haunerová, Michaela ; Rodová, Zuzana (advisor) ; Matoušová, Zita (referee)
OF BACHELOR THESIS Author of bachelor thesis: Michaela Haunerová Thesis supervisor: Bc. Zuzana Rodová, M.Sc. Title of bachelor thesis: Occupational therapy for patients with injuries associated with use of addictive substances Abstract of bachelor thesis: The bachelor thesis focuses on people who have suffered an injury as a result of substance abuse. Its aim is to map and describe the most common injuries that occur under the influence of addictive substances, to determine their impact on the course and success of the rehabilitation process and to point out the specifics of working with this type of patients. The theoretical part begins with an introduction to addictology, where important terms and the concept of addiction are explained. Then it focuses on the specific addictive substances under which injuries most often occur - alcohol, cannabis, opioids and opiates. Other chapters address specific common injuries and the use of occupational therapy, followed by chapters discussing the work of the occupational therapist with patients with addiction and the impact of addictive substances on the rehabilitation process. In the practical part, elements of qualitative research were used. First, the data collection methods are mentioned, followed by an analysis of the semi-structured interviews...
Visual processing of the topic Puppet theatre by people with substance abuse
JANDOVÁ, Zuzana Vlasta
The bachelor´s thesis focuses on the artistic rendering of the art therapy theme Puppet Theatre by people with substance use disorder who are being treated in a therapeutic community. While presenting the topic of the Puppet Theatre, the work aims to provide support for the interpretation of the Puppet Theatre theme within the projective-intervention approach in art therapy. It deals with the topics of addiction and puppet theatre, which then leads to a sub-chapter dealing with puppet theatre from the perspective of art therapy. The addiction is analyzed from the point of view of its definition, forms or causes. We mention in particular the types of drugs, their impact and the treatment of addiction in the Czech Republic with regard to therapeutic communities, while the role of art therapy in treatment is introduced as well. The section about puppet theatre discusses theatre and puppets origins and purpose including their construction types. All of the aforementioned forms the basis for the Puppet Theatre in the intentions of projective-interventional art therapy, documents it by the artefacts obtained during the research investigation and analyses in to define features recurring in the work of people with addiction.
Užívání návykových látek na střední škole
Řezáč, Oldřich
The topic of this bachelor thesis ist he issue of drug use among poeple studying at secondary school. The thesis includes not only the age definicion namely students and the characte-ristique oft he developmental stage of Adolescence, but also the definition and stages of addiction. Furthermore, addictive substances both legal and illegal are listed in the thesis. In the practical part, a research in this area is conducted in a selected high school with a focus on substance use, which was conducted in the form of a question-naire survey, but also a follow up evaluation and comparison with the ESPAD 2019 study
Mozkový systém odměny u hmyzu
DVOŘÁČEK, Jiří
Animal behavior is not random; rather, it is primarily determined by the biological significance of environmental stimuli: stimuli essential for a survival are marked by the brain reward system, with a positive hedonic value and their achievement is associated with the pleasure (reward). The concept of the reward system emerged from research of the mammalian brain; early theories held that it was a system present only in the brains of higher animals (the mesolimbic dopaminergic system), and that reward was a manifestation of more complex neural networks and higher brain functions. The brain reward has evolved from a solitary phenomenon to a complex function that is divided into the components of ´liking´, ´wanting´, and ´learning´, and from the predominate role of dopamine to a more sophisticated idea that assigns important functions to other neurochemical systems. While dopamine still plays a significant part in the ´wanting´ function, the opioid system likely plays a larger role in the ´liking´ function. The distinction of stimuli into pleasant/unpleasant (attractive/aversive) has been described in insects, and it is widely believed that this principle applies throughout the animal kingdom. Mushroom bodies have been identified as the critical regions of reward functions in the brains of insects. The exact descriptions of the implicated neurotransmitters and modulators, as well as specific cellular and network structures, were also provided. Although the complexity of the brain networks in mammalian and insect reward systems differs, the general principles are the similar in both. The fly Drosophila melanogaster is a frequent laboratory model for investigating the principles of neural network functioning. When studying the brain reward system, it is not only appealing because it is a relatively simple organism with a transparent brain and a described genome, but it may also have the benefit for us that when thinking about its brain, we do not apply relatively old, complex concepts with unlimited meanings, which are a problem in interpreting the human brain study. In the case of the fruit fly, we can highlight that 1) the brain regions involved in associative learning and brain reward functions are surprisingly complex, despite the fact that it is a relatively simple and short-lived organism, 2) its brain almost certainly has a system that creates a motivational drive (´wanting´), and 3) there are indications of the potential existence of a hedonic component of pleasure or its evolutionary predecessor, based not on endogenous opioids. It is inspiring in many ways to compare the brain structures of two evolutionary distinct animal groupsinsects and mammals/humans. This comparison has several implications for a broad paradigm of animal reward, including: Reward principles are universal, and all species are likely fundamentally motivated by the need for rewards. The brain reward mechanisms appear to be hierarchically structured; rather than being centrally organized, they are distributed among other brain networks and mechanisms. The components of these mechanisms can operate independently of one another and concurrently. While the function of neuropeptides in the reward system is flexible, the function of monoamines in the reward system is likely to be conservative in evolutionary terms (the function of endogenous opioids in mammals may be at least partially regulated by another neuropeptide in insects). The neurotransmitter identity of dopaminergic neurons in the reward system is likely to be very context-dependent. Two other interesting concepts can be found in the bee: the sublimation of reward functions in individuals in favor of collective pleasure, and the implied integrated function connecting reward functions and social behavior into one continuum. The comparative study gives new scope for understanding disorders of the reward system, especially addiction, and may also have significant philosophical consequences.
Arnoštka Maťová, life and professional contribution not only to Apolinar
Bauerová, Hana ; Šejvl, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Kulhánek, Adam (referee)
Background: The Czech addiction treatment system is closely connected with the creation and development of the Apolinar model and with the name of Jaroslav Skála. Without a doubt, other people from the team around Jaroslav Skála had a great influence on the form of treatment and the entire treatment model, especially Skála's long-time work and life partner Arnoštka Maťová. Targets: Create a basic overview of Arnoštka Maťová's professional life and her contribution to the treatment of alcohol addiction. Methodology: A content analysis of written materials from publicly available sources and some publicly available audio-visual recordings was carried out. Results: Arnoštka Maťová was one of the founders of the systematic treatment of alcohol addiction in the Czech Republic. She worked at Apolinar since 1950, i.e. almost from the very beginning, and undoubtedly participated in the creation and development of the Apolinar model of addiction. The main professional topics on which she particularly focused were: partner therapy in the treatment of alcoholism, the involvement of partners in dinpatinet program and in the after-care phase, the after-care system, the development of the self-help movement, records and statistical processing of data on the treatment of alcoholism and its success, linking...
Historical development of alcohol addiction treatment in the Psychiatric Hospital in Dobřany until 1989
Talpa, Radek ; Šejvl, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Miovský, Michal (referee)
Background Abstract: Medical care for addicts began to develop in the territory of the Czech Republic after 1911. The foundation of the Apolinar established a pivotal treatment procedure. Subsequent medical facilities did not start blindly copying it, but partially deviated from it and sought their own paths. The Psychiatric Hospital in Dobřany was such a facility. Objective: The aim of the thesis is to map and present the development of alcoholism treatment in the Psychiatric Hospital in Dobřany in a closed historical unit. In the period from its creation to 1989. To find key moments in the development of new therapeutic-treatment approaches. Find and map any deviation from the original model of treatment in Apolinar. Method: The work is conceived as a qualitative study based on the analysis of the searched documents related to the topic of the work. Results: Through the conducted research, it was possible to compress a comprehensive picture of the development of alcoholism treatment in the Psychiatric Hospital in Dobřany until 1989. To find the key moments in the development of treatment and its deviation from the original model of treatment in Apolinar. Conclusion: The residential addiction treatment model in the Psychiatric Hospital in Dobřany follows on from the treatment in the Psychiatric...
France's Influence on Its Former Colonies: A Case Study of Morocco and Algeria
Celerová, Adéla ; Kučerová, Irah (advisor) ; Plechanovová, Běla (referee)
This diploma thesis examines the topic of France's influence on its former colonies. Using the example of Algeria and Morocco, analyzes what influence France has on its former colonies at the present time, whether the influence persists, and whether this relationship can be characterized as a form of neocolonialism. Using the analysis of the relationship of the two selected countries with France, and the subsequent analysis of cooperation in four selected areas, the work examines and compares whether the possible influence of the former colonizer on the selected countries is the same, or whether it is different (eventually what are the reasons for the asymmetry of the ongoing relations in favor of one of the countries). The work is based on the theories of realism, which considers power to be the core of international relations, and in this case it is not hard power, but rather soft power. Other main important theories are colonialism and neocolonialism, as the countries were long time under French colonial rule, as well as orientalism or dependency theory, which also deals with the topic of influence. Based on the analysis of relations in the fields of foreign policy, economic cooperation and security cooperation, the influence of France on the two former colonies is compared in the theoretical...

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