National Repository of Grey Literature 557 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Kvantitativní zastoupení bakterií rodu Lactobacillus v lidském zažívacím traktu v závislosti na změně stravovacích návyků
Kolísková, Kateřina
This diploma thesis deals with the issue of quantitative representation of the bacterial family in the human digestion system depending on changes in eating habits. The start of literary digest addresses general characteristics of digestion microbiome and its bacterial represen-tation. The most comprehensive part belongs to individual factors, who influenced overall number of bacterial species inhabiting the digestion microbiome. The last chapters of the theoretical part belong to cultivative and molecular biological methods, which are used in examination of the human digestion tract. Experimental part focuses on differences in the number of individual bacteria in the samples of human excrements, whose presence was determined by cultivative methods. Isolation of bacterial DNA was performed, which was subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. In resulting values, we observed small changes (p < 0,05) in bacterial species L. acidophilus a L. rhamnosus at the end of the second period. All bacterial families, except Bacteroides, had downward tendency (p > 0,05). Based on acquired data from food records, we observed changes in consumption of basic macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates) and fiber. Only in carbohydrates and sim-ple sugars, we observed statistically provable differences (p > 0,05). Final analysis proved that changes in eating habits did not influence the total number of bacterial species inhabiting digestion microbiome.
Psychological Aspects of Obesity
Mašková, Eva ; Kebza, Vladimír (referee) ; Šivicová, Gabriela (referee)
The aim of this thesis "Psychological Aspects of Obesity" is to summarize psychological findings of causes and consequences of obesity, the most common health problem in the world. This thesis extends the topic of the diploma thesis entitled "The Psychological problems of Obesity." The theoretical part deals with many key issues of obesity, from definition through the epidemiology, etiology and obesity prevention and treatment. However the main topics of this thesis are the psychological characteristics associated with obesity. It includes personality factors of obese people, willpower and self- control and specific psychopathology. The research part of this thesis is mapping the occurrence of a specific psychopathological phenomena focusing on the emotional eating disorder, night eating syndrome, binge eating and symptoms of eating disorder. A total of 80 participants who were diagnosed with obesity, combined I. - III. class, attended educational- recondition stay organised by Third Internal Clinic of The General University Hospital in Prague and University Physical Educational Unity. Applied methods were "Eating Behavior and Emotionality Questionnaire" (JICHEM), "The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0" (EDE - Q) and "The Night Eating Questionnaire" (NEQ). The data of quantitative...
Interplay between ghrelin and its novel endogenous antagonist LEAP2: possible role in the pathology of obesity
Holá, Lucie ; Maletínská, Lenka (advisor) ; Jurčovičová, Jana (referee) ; Malínská, Hana (referee)
The increasing number of overweight and obese individuals has become a major health issue in our society. The etiology of obesity often involves excessive hyperphagia, highlighting the importance of comprehensive understanding the regulation of food intake regulation in order to effectively treat this chronic condition. Ghrelin, a peripheral peptide hormone responsible for increasing food intake, directly affects the hypothalamus through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Recently, it was found that liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) naturally counteracts the effects of the GHSR as an inverse agonist. This makes LEAP2 a potential candidate for the development of anti-obesity treatment. This thesis explores the interaction between ghrelin and LEAP2 in the context of food intake regulation and obesity. Firstly, it focuses on modified N-terminal peptide LEAP2(1-14) and its lipidized analogs, examining their affinity to and activation of GHSR in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrate that palmitoylated LEAP2(1-14) (palm-LEAP2(1-14)) exhibits the most pronounced affinity for GHSR, acts as GHSR inverse agonist, reduces food intake, inhibits growth hormone release, and shows increased stability in rat plasma. These findings suggest that palm-LEAP2(1-14) holds promise as an...
Association of fatty acid composition in serum and / or adipose tissue lipids with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese subjects of different age categories
Metelcová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee)
Obesity is a chronic disease that is caused by many factors. Excessive adipose tissue is involved in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Prevention of cardiometabolic risks includes lifestyle arrangement, including an increased intake of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In additional to lifestyle factors, genetics factors also significantly contribute to influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In study A, we monitored 670 subjects (336 girls and 334 boys). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FADS1 gene (rs174546, rs174537) was assessed using real-time PCR and then we determined the spectrum of fatty acids (FAs). The results show that SNPs in the FADS1 affect the efficiency of synthesis by affecting the activity of delta 5 desaturase. Abnormal FAs composition can affect cardiometabolic health. Study B examined a cohort of 215 individuals (131 women and 84 men) who participated in both rounds of the Childhood Obesity Prevalence And Treatment (COPAT) project. The individuals were divided into two groups: BMI≤25 kg/mš and BMI≥25 kg/mš. This model was evaluated regardless of sex because the variable sex did not correlate significantly with the variable weight status. The percentage of adipose tissue was used as the second parameter. The second parameter...
Molecular mechanisms linking adipose tissue dysfunction and atherosclerotic complications
Kratochvílová, Helena ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Bužga, Marek (referee) ; Cibičková, Ľubica (referee)
Obesity and its associated comorbidities increase the risk of mortality. The development of subclinical inflammation associated with obesity also plays a significant role in this. In our work, we focused on changes in the endocrine and mitochondrial function of adipose tissue and their relationship to cardiovascular complications. The first part of the thesis focuses on determining the expression of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum genes in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue, intercostal muscle or right myocardial atrium in patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Patients with coronary artery disease had reduced expression of several mitochondrial chain genes in epicardial adipose tissue compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue and other tissues, while no change in endoplasmic reticulum gene expression in the above-mentioned tissues has been demonstrated. Based on decreased mitochondrial gene expression in patients with coronary artery disease, we conclude that mitochondrial dysfunction of epicardial adipose tissue may contribute to the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The second part of the thesis is focused on neudesin, new potentional regulator of energy metabolism, in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who underwent various weight reduction...
Mechanisms of comorbidity of metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases
Tauchman, Martin ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Brožka, Hana (referee)
In Czechia, number of people with neurodegenerative diseases is in the hundreds of thousands, and the lifetime health care costs and social impact of each patient's disease reach hundreds of thousands of euros, but these costs could be reduced by early and effective intervention. Its correct implementation could be helped by knowledge of causal links between neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, whose prevalence is correlated in the population. One of the important factors is an increased pro-inflammatory immune response. In people with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation evolves into neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to neurodegeneration. Another mechanism is hyperglycaemia, which is a consequence of insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia lead to impaired expression of glucose transporters and insulin-degrading enzyme, resulting in reduced clearance of amyloid beta. Genetic background is also recognized as a highly influential factor, affecting various mechanisms in both beneficial and harmful ways. Lifestyle is also an important factor. In general, smoking and alcohol consumption are harmful to health. Both increased consumption of alcoholic beverages and smoking tobacco products can lead to metabolic disorders as well as neurodegeneration. On the...
Adipose etrogenisation and other anthropological aspects of obesity
Novák, Jan ; Sedlak, Petr (advisor) ; Bezdíček, Ondřej (referee) ; Bendlová, Běla (referee)
This work presents an anthropological view of obesity. It introduces the concept of adipose estrogenization and describes its relationship to pelvic morphology. Further, secular changes in the prevalence of latent obesity, the consequences, and the etiology of this condition are described. The work also validates tools for assessing chronotype, subsequently associating these metrics with sociodemographic factors, including obesity. The key part of this project present study focused on changes in the morphology of the bony pelvis in the context of pubertal history of obesity. It is a longitudinal study (n = 238) with an anthropometric examination after 8 years and an estimation of sex hormones. The main observation was that adult men with a history of obesity had more gynoid (relatively wider) pelvic bone morphology and altered levels of sex hormones, i.e., reduced testosterone levels and an increased relative proportion of estradiol to testosterone, i.e., estrogenization. This was manifested with habitual pelvic feminization, which serves as a marker of estrogenization and a retrospective marker of obesity. In the context of this study, a Letter to the Editor is added as a correction to the publication, interpreting these findings as a possible explanation for the shorter second stage of labor in...
The role of orexins in food intake and chosen pathological phenomena
Zelená, Anna ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Balounová, Kateřina (referee)
Orexins are neuropeptides produced in the lateral hypothalamus in the brain and peripheral organs. These neuropeptides are essential in regulating arousal and energy balance. They also participate in the reward system and secure water homeostasis. Orexins bind to the orexin receptors differently expressed in various tissues. The binding of orexins to their receptors couples with downstream signalling pathways, e.g., Ca2+ , diacylglycerol and protein kinase C pathways. Low concentration of adenosine triphosphate leads to the inactivation of orexin-expressing neurons and the reduction of energy expenditure. On the contrary, high intracellular concertation of adenosine triphosphate activates energy expenditure. Food intake is regulated by orexins and glucose, sirtuin 1, forkhead box transcription factor 2, and leptin. This thesis aims to find connections between the role of orexins in regulating food intake and the development of some pathological phenomena, e.g., hypertension, obesity, and anorexia nervosa. Keywords orexin, obesity, anorexia nervosa, glucose, insulin, stress
The influence of the Media on the Lifestyle of Teenagers
Richterová, Karolína ; Wolák, Radim (advisor) ; Lütke Notarp, Ulrike (referee)
This thesis examines the impact of media on adolescents' lifestyles, more specifically on two aspects of lifestyle, namely physical activity and sleep. Within the Covid-19 pandemic period, individuals were forced to stay in their homes, and all their social contact, as well as school and work obligations, shifted to the online environment. With this, screen time also increased, as did the associated sedentary behaviour. As they were all forced to be isolated, sports and leisure activities were also very limited or often also transferred to the online environment. The aim of this thesis is therefore to try to define the habits of adolescents in terms of physical activity, sleep and media consumption, and how these aspects are interconnected, and whether adolescents perceive this interconnection. The aim was also to provide some education to the individuals, where they were then confronted with recommendations for particular aspects of lifestyle (sleep and physical activity), but also recommendations regarding media consumption. As lifestyle was strongly influenced by the Covid-19 disease pandemic, the aim was also to see how individual students' habits changed within this period, but also afterwards. Within the framework of this work, qualitative research was conducted. Using in-depth interviews...
Effect of Exercise on Lipid Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue
Gazdová, Tatiana ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Tauchmannová, Kateřina (referee)
Obesity and old age are more prevalent among the current human population than ever before. Increased fat accumulation and hormonal dysregulation are common hallmarks of both these states. It is well reported that both states are associated with impaired lipolysis and glucose homeostasis as a result of disrupted metabolic pathway signalling. Current research offers exercise as a possible remedy, which could improve substrate handling in obesity and old age. Increased energy expenditure, myokine production, and improved insulin sensitivity are all potential benefits of exercise that could mitigate the health risks associated with obesity and ageing. In this work we aim to explore the effect of acute endurance exercise protocol on lipolytic activity of visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue depots of lean and young, obese, and aged mice. By the addition of forskolin, isoproterenol, and insulin into the explant media we hope to assess the functionality of β-adrenergic signalling in our subjects. Post exercise lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, increased in both depots in all test groups. Glycerol release did not follow the same pattern. Additionally, lipolytic rate, measured as non-esterified fatty acid release, in visceral adipose tissue was higher in samples from...

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