National Repository of Grey Literature 469 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Development of mass spectrometric methods for structural analysis of fatty acids and estolides
Cudlman, Lukáš ; Cvačka, Josef (advisor) ; Kozlík, Petr (referee) ; Lísa, Miroslav (referee)
(EN) This doctoral thesis summarizes the use of modern mass spectrometric methods for the structural identification of fatty acids and triacylglycerol estolides (TG-EST) and their subsequent characterization in the lipidome of vernix caseosa, i.e., the biofilm covering the skin of the human fetus during the last trimester of in-utero development. Vernix caseosa has mainly antimicrobial properties and the ability to heal wounds and burns. The first part of the doctoral thesis focuses on the diversity of fatty acids in the lipidome of vernix caseosa. These acids form the structural subunits of complex lipids, such as the abundant triacylglycerols and wax esters. By studying fatty acids and their structural features, this thesis has provided valuable insights into the structural variability of the vernix caseosa lipidome. Without a full understanding of the structure of these key subunits, it would be impossible to complete the analysis of this lipidome in the future. In this thesis, fatty acids using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and modern mass spectrometry methods, namely ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) and ozone-induced dissociation (OzID), were characterized. The coupling of HPLC and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) provided unambiguous information on the positions and geometry of...
Study of low-temperature plasma products using mass spectrometry and their relation to thin film chemistry
Maršálek, Blahoslav ; Bránecký, Martin (referee) ; Čech, Vladimír (advisor)
The aim of this thesis was to analyse and interpret the spectra of tetravinylsilane as a function of plasma discharge power in order to find a relationship between plasma products, layer deposition and thin film chemistry. Another objective was to carry out a literature search in the field of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and mass spectrometry. Low temperature organosilicate-based plasma technology enables the synthesis of specific materials with controlled chemical and physical properties. The targeted synthesis of surfaces with controlled properties is determined by the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma, which are responsible for building the chemical structure and the resulting material in the form of a thin film. In this work, mass spectrometry has been used to detect and quantify the particles produced in the PECVD process, which is one of the methods that allow the characterization and identification of plasma products. Analysis of the mass spectra revealed that the molecules responsible for the growth of the layer contain carbon and silicon. The deposition rate determined by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry correlates quantitatively with the flux of carbon and silicon particles that are chemisorbed on the film surface. The ratio of carbon and silicon deposited on the surface also correlates strongly with the C/Si flux ratio of the power driven plasmas. The contribution of silicon-containing particles as building blocks to the film growth decreases with increasing power and accounts for 20% (2 W), 5% (10 W) and only 1% (75 W) of the total chemisorbed fraction. This ratio between bound silicon containing particles and carbon particles affects the elemental composition and chemical structure of the deposited layers. The relationships between plasmachemical processes and particle adhesion on the surface are quite complex. The adhesion of silicon particles first increases sharply to a maximum at 25 W and then gradually decreases, which is characteristic of the so-called precursor-deficient PECVD. Similarly, the concentration of vinyl groups incorporated into the deposited layer and the fraction of sp2 hybridization of carbon correlate with the particle fluxes of the corresponding plasma. This work has demonstrated that mass spectroscopy is a suitable method for the study of plasmachemical deposition from the gas phase (PECVD). PECVD technology is promising for the deposition of silicon-containing layers, which is technologically applicable in many directions of materials research.
Determination of linear synthetic aromatic compounds in abiotic and biotic matrices
Tulková, Tereza ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Synthetic musk compounds are artificial organic compounds with a smell similar to the odor of a natural musk. The most recently discovered and also the least known group of artificial musks is linear musk compounds. These substances are now often used in cosmetics, personal care products, detergents and various cleaning products. They have leaked into all the major environment components, especially into the hydrosphere. There has been great attention drawn to synthetic musk compounds in the last few years because of their environmental impact. The aim of this thesis is to identify twelve linear musk compounds (linalool, 2-cyclohexylethanol, fresco menthe, citronellol, HSA, isobornyl acetate, arocet, aroflorone, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, lilial, isoamyl salicylate and hexylcinnamic aldehyde) in waste water samples. The samples were taken at three different waste water treatment plants (WWTP) in South Moravian region (WWTP Brno-Modřice, WWTP Luhačovice and WWTP Hodonín). Each of these treatment plants has a different equivalent number of inhabitants. At first, a working method was optimized, then applied on real waste water samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used for the extraction of analytes. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was then used for identification and quantificaton of the studied compounds.
Determination of selected phytopharmaceuticals and their metabolites in waste waters
Nevědělová, Klára ; Stoupalová, Michaela (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
This diploma thesis will be focused on the identification and quantification of selected phytopharmaceuticals ant theri transformation products using separation and spectrometric methods available in the laboratories of ICTEP.
Characterization of the chemical composition of the tar produced in the gasification of biomass
Mahelová, Zora ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
Biomass is a renewable source of energy and represents an acceptable alternative to fosil fuels. Usable methods of energetic use of biomass are combustion and gasification. Main interest is focused on gasification in last years. Gasification is based on conversion of organic material to usable gaseous product called syngas, which can be used as a fuel for energy production. Large amount of tar is formed as a by-product of incineration and gasification of biomass. Tar is composed by various mixture of organic substances, has a negative effect on operating conditions and is a potential threat to environment. Experimental part of this study was focused on analysis of tar obtained by gasification of various kind of biomass. Selected groups of hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds were identified in analysed samples. Individual biomass samples were compared regarding to determined relative content of selected substances. Analysis was done by complete twodimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCxGC/TOF-MS).
Analysis of selected strobilurine pesticides in barley, malt and beer
Stehlík, Pavel ; Kočí, Radka (referee) ; RNDr.Renata Mikulíková (advisor)
This diploma work is aimed determination of strobilurine pesticide in barly, malt and berr. Identifikation of strobilurine was made according to mass spectra library and base of commercialy standard. The next quantifikation in samples was made. The work consist of three main parts refer about problems. In therotical part is the method of plant, grown protection. This part is about pesticides and their fission, history and effects. In experimental part is method for determination strobilurine. In part results and discussion are all result and data in tables a graphs. At the end is sumed up result this work.
Structural stury of carboranes by mass spectrometry
Navrátilová, Romana ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
Boron cluster compounds are substances clearly synthetic, which don't exist outdoors. This group covers boranes, heteroboranes and their derivatives. They are synthesized and examined mostly for their extraordinary structural and bonding properties. Their study also brought many remarkable findings and even allowed practical use of these compounds in science and technology. This thesis is focused on the application of mass spectrometry for the identification of boranes and heteroboranes and on the study of their fragmentation mechanisms using tandem mass spectrometry on spherical ion trap.
Analysis of aromatic compounds in plasma treated onion
Krejsová, Lenka ; Kozáková, Zdenka (referee) ; Krčma, František (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of fragrances in onions, which were exposed to plasma before planting. The adjustment was made to see if onion growth and yields would improve. The theoretical part deals with the quantitative and qualitative methods for the determination of volatile substances. It contains the principle and instrumentation of mass spectrometry as well as the tandem connection of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the experimental part, a liquid sample was obtained by pressing. After 60 minutes, saturated vapors were analyzed by reactive ionization mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Thanks to this analysis, the concentration of volatile substances was determined. Some samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer as detector to identify the compounds, because PTR-MS does not allow distinguishing of isomers. Subsequently, the data were processed and evaluated. From the gathered obtained it is clear that the plasma treatment has an effect on the fragrances concentrations. After six months of storage, the presence of some volatile substances increased due to increased biological activity.
Application of passive sampling for the analysis of hormones in drinking water
Remerová, Martina ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
The thesis focuses on the use of passive sampling during an analysis of hormones in drinkable water. In the theoretical part there are described selected passive samplers and the sample of the type of POCIS is described at fuller length. The next chapter engages with steroid hormones and an input of estrogenic hormone into the environment. The thesis contains chapters dealing with possibilities of the determination of hormones in water. It is specialized on the analysis of drinkable and surface water. In the last chapter of the theoretical part there are introduced water works where samples for an experimental assessment were collected from. The experimental part of the thesis presents the specification of the extraction of analytes and an adjustment of used device. In the thesis there are specific calibrations for individual assessment of hormones. The results of the assessment for each collection point are ordered to a well-arranged table. Increased levels of targeted estrogens were not approved in most of sampling points.
Study of Transfer of Musk Compounds in Abiotic and Biotic Components of Aquatic Ecosystems
Zouhar, Libor ; Hajšlová, Jana (referee) ; Sokol, Jozef (referee) ; Večeřa, Zbyněk (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work was focused on the determination of musk compounds in various components of the environment. Synthetic musk compounds are organic substances commonly used as fragrant constituents of detergents, perfumes, cosmetics and other personal care products (PCPs). These compounds contaminate the aquatic environment through municipal wastewater from sewage treatment plants. The result is accumulation of these analytes in the environment and their occurrence in food chain. Synthetic fragrances are commonly detected also in human body; these substances generally belong among relatively new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. The aim of this work was to optimize the methods for the determination of selected synthetic fragrances in wastewater (municipal, industrial) and in fish muscle. These analytes were determined in wastewater [the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) Brno – Modřice, cosmetic manufacturing plant] and in fish Squalius cephalus that had been caught in the river Svratka. The selected analytes (14 substances) originate from the group of nitromusk, polycyclic musk and linear musk compounds. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) [for wastewater samples] and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) [for fish samples] were used for isolation of analytes from real samples. The identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). The results show that galaxolide (g.L-1) and tonalide (tenths of g.L-1) were polycyclic musk compounds which were found at the highest concentration level in influent and also in effluent samples from the WWTP Brno – Modřice. The most extended nitromusk compound was musk ketone (hundredths of g.L-1). Linear musk compounds were detected in all influent samples (g.L-1). The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musk compounds from wastewater in the WWTP varies within the following ranges: nitromusk compounds 34.4 % – 85.4 %, polycyclic musk compounds 36.7 % – 53.3 % and linear musk compounds 90.5 % – 99.9 %. On the basis of the results it can be stated that wastewater (effluent from the WWTP) is the primary source of musk compounds, especially of the polycyclic ones in the environment. It has been also shown that ultrafiltration used in a cosmetic plant is a highly efficient technology for removing nitromusk and polycyclic musk compounds from industry wastewater. The results from evaluation of the fish contamination by musk compounds show that galaxolide was the substance which reached the highest concentration levels (tens of g.kg-1 l.w.). The results corroborate ubiquitous occurrence of musk compounds in the environment and reduction of using of nitromusk compounds due to their potential toxic properties. It has been shown that the insufficiency of the purifying procedures used in the WWTP Brno – Modřice has a significant influence on the concentration level of polycyclic musk compounds (tonalide, galaxolide) in fish caught from the river Svratka.

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