National Repository of Grey Literature 94 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Development of mycorrhizal communities in primary succession
Mádle, Jan ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Ponert, Jan (referee)
Primary succession is the process of ecosystem development that takes place in sites that were not suitable for colonization by plants and organisms dependent on them. These sites arise either naturally, for example after a volcanic eruption or glacial retreat, or anthropogenically, for example by strip mining. During primary succession, plants colonise the bare substrate and gradually modify its abiotic and biotic conditions. During primary succession, interactions between plants and the soil microbiome, especially with fungi and bacteria, occur. Plants and soil microorganisms influence each other's growth and development through various interactions. Plants, or rather their roots, form a specific niche for a wide range of soil microbial communities. Through their roots, plants provide a wide range of substances, organic acids, sugars, amino acids and other often carbon-rich compounds that can serve as a substrate for microorganisms. Plants are able to do this by producing litter, root exudates, and translocation of sugars for symbiotic fungi and bacteria. Soil microorganisms contri- bute to the release of nutrients and the decomposition of organic materials that would otherwise be unavailable to plants. Many soil microorganisms can form a symbiotic relationship with the plant; this relationship may be...
Influence of plasma activated water on fungal diseases
Moskvina, Anastasia ; Krčma, František (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This bachelor thesis focuses on influence of plasma treated water on fungal diseases. The theoretical part is dedicated to plasma-liquid interactions, properties and application of plasma activated water and its influence on different microorganisms. Plasma activated water contains reactive oxygen species which cause inactivation of living cells, making it a potential sterilizer. The experimental part of this work compares the effectiveness of three plasma treated water preparation techniques. Dielectric barrier discharge system was used to activate water above its surface. For the under the surface activation, a two-electrode system of both alternating and direct current was used. Plasma treated water was then used to prepare a suspended mixture with Aspergillus niger spores. The latter was then cultivated on agar plates for 72 hours. The overall effect was evaluated in amounts of colony forming units. The experimentally obtained data was processed and discussed in the results and discussion section of the thesis. It was found that the underwater surface activation had more significant effect on mold deactivation, which corresponds with the information contained in the theoretical part. Although the effect of dielectric barrier discharge was not as promising, all three methods used led to a decrease of colony forming units in comparison to the non-treated control sample.
Molecular and Genomic Methods for Analyzing Hybridization in Aspergillus and other Fungi
Jirkovský, Pavel ; Sklenář, František (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Interpecies hybridization is being studied since the first half of 20. century, when it was described based on phenotypical traits on plant model. Study of this process was historically centred around botanical studies, while its importance in mycology is just being uncovered in recent years. Introgression is a phenomenon that can occur when hybrid backcrosses with one of the parental species. Based on recent studies it is apparent that hybridization played its role in evolution of MAT locus genes of Neurospora, transfer of adaptive traits with Ophiostoma species (invasive pathogen of elm trees). Within Aspergillus family hybridization was described both on intraspecific and interspecific level. More detailed study of this process and improving of used methods could potentially help in clinical application by uncovering adaptive genes responsible for resistance towards antimycotics, higher virulence and other traits.
An analysis of fungal exudate and carbon use efficiency
NÜBL, Laura
The exometabolome of various fungal functional guilds was investigated as part of the below-ground carbon flux. This thesis addresses the incorporation and exudation of carbon by individual, axenic fungal cultures, with a focus on developing a protocol for characterisation and identification of those compounds.
The evaluation of 137Cs content in mushrooms and forest berries in the South Bohemia region
HÁLOVÁ, Jana
The collection and consumption of forest fungi and blueberries are among the most popular seasonal activities in Czech Republic. Due to the Chernobyl accident, however, these raw materials are believed to have contained increased amounts of radionuclides. The aim of the work is to evaluate the content of 137Cs in blueberries and fungi collected from South Bohemian region in the period of 1992 - 2020. Data of 137Cs mass activity obtained from the State Office for Nuclear Safety's MonRas database were re-examined for validation using samples of fungi (n = 318) and blueberries (n = 142). The results ranged widely as follows: (a) boletes fungus, from 0.18 to 6430 Bq / kg; (b) leafy fungus, from 0.28 to 4040 Bq / kg; and (c) blueberries, from 0.24 to 2046 Bq / kg. Between boletes fungus and leafy fungus, the former was seen to have a higher ability to accumulate the radionuclide 137Cs. The calculated effective dose caused by the consumption of fungi and blueberries was assessed as negligible, amounting only to less than 1% of the general limit for the population. Despite these favorable results, detailed monitoring of raw materials from nature needs to be continued and the safety of the food chain ensured.
Houby vřesovišť CHKO Brdy
SYNKOVÁ, Hedvika
The aim of this thesis was to assess the impact of controlled fire on fungal community in heathlands in CHKO Brdy and describe their changes during succession. Fungal fruitbodies were monitored during years 2018 and 2019 at twenty-five monitoring plots at Jordán, Tok and Brda. The relationship between fungal species richness and the time since the last fire and soil humidity was determined. The effect of the time since the last fire, soil humidity and vegetation on fungal species composition was analysed using multivariate ordination methods. The quality of studied habitat was evaluated based on the presence of red-listed and indicator fungal species.
Složení společenstev endoyfytických mikroorganismů osídlujících listy hemiparazitických rostlin
SVOBODOVÁ, Ilona
This bachelor´s thesis focuses on describing the community composition of endophytic microorganisms colonizing foliar parts of selected Central-Europaean species of parasitic plants and their potential hosts. The aim is to find specific differences in the structure and diversity of bacterial and fungal endophytes between plant species with parasitic and non-parasitic life strategy.
Methodology to identify missing genetic resources in culture collections, strategy to fill the gaps
Komínek, Petr a kolektiv
The methodology was created under the National programme on conservation of microbial genetic resources of economical imortance. Its preparation was planned in the beginning of a current period of solving the National programme (2018-2022). The methodology describe procedures for the evaluation of specialization of individual collections from the point of view variability of genetic resources held on the collections. The goal of the methodology is to improve the work of microbial collections for the sustainable conservation of microbial genetic resources.
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Environmental drivers of microbial community composition in a temperate forest
Martinović, Tijana ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Vašutová, Martina (referee) ; Kopecký, Jan (referee)
Recently, much attention has been focused on the importance of forests to the global carbon cycle. Microorganisms are a critical component of the carbon cycle in forests, participating in important ecosystem processes and degrading various carbon compounds, from simple to highly recalcitrant compounds. However, most studies in this regard have focused on fungi. Only in recent years has it become known that bacteria are also capable of degrading complex plant polymers in soil, and that their contribution to the carbon cycle may be as important as that of fungi. Furthermore, our knowledge of the temporal dynamics of both fungal and bacterial communities is limited, as well as their response to different environmental drivers. The main objective of this dissertation was to fill these knowledge gaps by (1) quantifying the rate of temporal turnover of fungal and bacterial communities in soils of temperate forests, (2) describing the factors that shape fungal communities in spruce and beech stands during their long-term development (stand age), (3) assessing the contribution of fungi and bacteria to the utilisation of different carbon sources in forest soils, and finally (4) describing the development of bacterial communities in response to clearcutting of a spruce stand. The study of microbes...
Natural compounds potentially influencing neurodegenerative diseases
Mňuková, Daniela ; Opletal, Lubomír (advisor) ; Suchánková, Daniela (referee)
Mňuková D.: Natural compounds potentially influencing neurodegenerative diseases. Diploma thesis, Charles University in Prag, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department os Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical botany, Hradec Králové 2022, 88 s. This research diploma thesis draws mainly from foreign professional literature. It provides an overview of important natural substances that potentially influence neurodegenerative diseases. The first part describes the moct common neurodegenerative diseases, their characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical picture. These diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, multisystem atrophy, Pick's disease and other tauopathies, Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia and amyotrophic latelar sclerosis. The second part of diploma thesis presents natural substances that have been studied in preclinical and clinical studies in the last two decades for their potential to positively affect neurodegenerative diseases. The last part discusses the contribution of these natural substances fot therapy and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases, natural compounds, Alzheimer's disease, bioactive compounds

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