National Repository of Grey Literature 243 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
One Health approach to understand emerging zoonotic pathogens in the Trichophyton benhamiae complex
Čmoková, Adéla ; Hubka, Vít (advisor) ; Buchta, Vladimír (referee) ; Gené, Josepa (referee)
The Trichophyton benhamiae complex encompasses several zoonotic pathogens that are of increasing concern to the scientific community due to their epidemic spread among pets and their owners. Of particular concern is the sudden appearance and rapid spread of T. benhamiae yellow phenotype strains in Europe. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variability has been revealed in the pathogens from the complex, yet the species limits and host spectra have not been clearly elucidated. To explore the diversity, epidemiology, and taxonomy of the T. benhamiae complex, my colleagues and I formed an international, cross-disciplinary team and applied a holistic One Health approach. We collected a large dataset of strains from several continents, along with associated data about host, clinical picture, and locality. Due to the high level of clonality in commonly used DNA sequence markers, I developed a new typing schema based on ten microsatellite markers and four DNA sequence markers. We then used a polyphasic approach combining data from independent analyses to decide on species limits in the T. benhamiae complex, including phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses, phenotypic and physiological analyses, mating-type gene characterization, ecological data and MALDI- TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Thanks to...
Implementing modern species delimitation techniques into fungal taxonomy: Aspergillus charting the course
Sklenář, František ; Hubka, Vít (advisor) ; Haelewaters, Danny (referee) ; Janko, Karel (referee)
This thesis focuses on the implementation of modern methods and approaches for species delimitation in the genus Aspergillus, an economically important fungal genus and model organism. So far, taxonomic studies in Aspergillus regularly included multiple DNA loci (typically four), and the phylogenetic analysis itself mostly consisted of calculating a phylogenetic tree based on individual loci and the concatenated dataset, or less commonly on genealogical concordance principles. Additionally, the datasets usually contained only a limited number of strains per species. The inclusion of more sophisticated phylogenetic species delimitation methods (mostly based on Multispecies coalescent model) in Aspergillus taxonomy adds a whole new layer to the analysis that ensures much higher objectivity of taxonomic decisions. Each of the eight presented papers contains a taxonomic treatment of a particular part of the genus with phylogenetic analyses based on datasets containing DNA sequences from three to six loci or whole genome data (series Nigri). The available molecular data are analyzed by a gradually refined set of phylogenetic species delimitation methods reflecting progress made between years 2017 and 2022. The individual papers also examine some specific characteristics that suitably complement the...
Biodiverzita myxozoí v přehradní nádrži Římov zjištěná analýzou environmentální DNA
BÜRGEROVÁ, Monika
Myxozoans represent a diverse group of microscopic endoparasites primarily infecting fish, including over 2,600 nominal species. Despite the extensive number of described species, their diversity remains still unexplored and underestimated. The detection and surveillance of myxozoan parasites in previously unexamined areas can reveal crucial pathogens linked to fish mortality and discover myxozoans biodiversity. This thesis investigates the parasite diversity in the Římov Reservoir, focusing on myxozoan detection through environmental DNA (eDNA). A comparison of detected diversity at various sites and in different environmental samples across the Římov Reservoir unveiled interesting patterns of read abundance and number of OTUs within each myxozoan clade. This study underscores the importance of eDNA analysis in detecting pathogens and assessing biodiversity in myxozoan parasites.
Seasonal dynamics of mats composed by green alga Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae)
Trumhová, Kateřina
The mats formed by Zygnema spp. are well known and frequently found in streams, puddles, seepages, and ponds. Owing to the low and inconsistent water quantity of these biotopes, algae are periodically subjected to stresses like desiccation, freezing, or strong solar radiation. Recent studies have revealed that Zygnema survives various stresses in pre-akinetes, modified resistant vegetative cells. However, earlier experiments mostly aimed at osmotic stress and desiccation. Moreover, the mats formed by these algae have seasonal dynamics that have been observed several times, not only in temperate conditions but also in the Arctic. Field observations revealed that most of the biomass is periodically lost, and new mats are formed every year. Simultaneously, we know little about the genetic composition of the mats and how it changes over time; previous work has focused mainly on the mats as an entirety. Therefore, this work mainly aimed to subject the mats formed by the algae Zygnema spp. to long-term observation and subsequent experiments. We selected a region in the Austrian Alps, which we visited several times a year, and sampled two sites with different water regimes. Further research in collaboration with colleagues occurred in the Arctic. Zygnema spp. strains were subsequently isolated from the...
There is something in the air: Diversity of lichen symbionts in the aeroplankton
Veselá, Veronika ; Škaloud, Pavel (advisor) ; Vančurová, Lucie (referee)
Lichens that reproduce primarily sexually rely on the presence of their symbionts in the environment. A new lichen cannot develop without direct contact between the filaments of the germinating spore and a compatible symbiotic alga. However, the results of earlier studies do not provide solid evidence for photobiont presence on lichen-colonized substrates. The objective of this thesis was to assess various environmental types (air, bark, soil, stone, and artificial substrates) as potential sources of symbiotic algae. To achieve in-depth understanding of the diversity of green algae at a long-studied Central Bohemian study-site, Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding of the ITS2 rDNA region was combined with traditional sequencing of lichen algal ITS rDNA and morphological observations. The methods used revealed 283 species-level lineages and 1313 OTUs, many of which belonged to unknown species or higher taxonomic categories. All photobiont species associating solely with sexual lichens at the site could also be found in the vicinity of lichen thalli. As a result, both the substrates and the air, where these symbiotic algae occurred as well, may act as photobiont sources. In contrast, many symbionts that associate only with asexual lichen species, were never found at the site outside of lichen thalli....
Long-distance migrations of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Hlaváček, Antonín ; Hadrava, Jiří (advisor) ; Černý, Martin (referee)
Long-distance migration of insects is well-known phenomenon, studied especially in butterflies and locusts. Until now, the migration of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was considered a rather marginal issue and not much attention has been given to it. However, billions of hoverflies take part in the spring and autumn migration every year, transferring hundreds of tonnes of biomass and nutrients. The aim of this thesis is to review an existing knowledge on the migration of hoverflies in context of their ecology and evolution. In the first part, I discuss the biogeography and diversity of migratory hover flies, methods for studying migration and the application of such methods in hover flies migration. In the following chapters, I focus on the migration of particular species in context of their ecology and evolution, especially on population dynamics, phenology, orientation, and dimorphism in the migratory generation.
Seasonal dynamics of mats composed by green alga Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae)
Trumhová, Kateřina ; Pichrtová, Martina (advisor) ; Remias, Daniel (referee) ; Žárský, Jakub (referee)
The mats formed by Zygnema spp. are well known and frequently found in streams, puddles, seepages, and ponds. Owing to the low and inconsistent water quantity of these biotopes, algae are periodically subjected to stresses like desiccation, freezing, or strong solar radiation. Recent studies have revealed that Zygnema survives various stresses in pre-akinetes, modified resistant vegetative cells. However, earlier experiments mostly aimed at osmotic stress and desiccation. Moreover, the mats formed by these algae have seasonal dynamics that have been observed several times, not only in temperate conditions but also in the Arctic. Field observations revealed that most of the biomass is periodically lost, and new mats are formed every year. Simultaneously, we know little about the genetic composition of the mats and how it changes over time; previous work has focused mainly on the mats as an entirety. Therefore, this work mainly aimed to subject the mats formed by the algae Zygnema spp. to long-term observation and subsequent experiments. We selected a region in the Austrian Alps, which we visited several times a year, and sampled two sites with different water regimes. Further research in collaboration with colleagues occurred in the Arctic. Zygnema spp. strains were subsequently isolated from the...
Processing and analysis of the human gut microbiome from 16S rDNA sequencing data
Zbudilová, Michaela ; Jurečková, Kateřina (referee) ; Nykrýnová, Markéta (advisor)
This bachelor´s thesis deals with the analysis of the human intestinal microbiome from 16S rRNA data. In the first part, the intestinal microbiome is theoretically described, and then the methods of its processing and evaluation using analysis of taxonomic categories and sample diversity are mentioned. The second part focuses on the data processed in the thesis and the format in which those data are provided. In the third part, the proposed algorithm used to process the data is described, and the results obtained by running this algorithm are evaluated. In the fourth part of the thesis, the samples from the University Hospital Brno are processed using the proposed algorithm. The last part of the thesis focuses on the script, which is used to generate the reports which can be used for diagnostic purposes in the University Hospital Brno.
Contemporary trend of inclusivity demonstrated on magazines Vogue CS and Vogue FR
Skorkovská, Sandra ; Klabíková Rábová, Tereza (advisor) ; Ivanišová, Markéta (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with the diversity of models in the Czech and French editions of Vogue. It is based on three studies that mention the rise in popularity of plus size, ethnic, queer, disabled and mature models on catwalks, magazine covers and Instagram. It focuses on the representation of three groups of models, specifically models of different skin tones, models of different body types and models aged 50 and above. The aim of this thesis is to determine whether (and to what extent) selected editions of Vogue magazine include selected groups in their content through photographs that promote a product or brand, and how these editions differ from each other. The thesis is divided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical part first deals with defining the concept of diversity and the representation of selected groups in the fashion industry. The following section characterizes magazines, including magazines aimed at women. Afterwards, the history of the Czech and French editions of the examined magazine is presented. The methodological part deals with the content analysis of 24 magazines and their subsequent comparison, with a total of 976 models analysed. In addition to the two research questions, three hypotheses are also established, building on the theoretical part and...
Critical and reader response to the diversity in young adult literature
Hetešová, Anna ; Čeňková, Jana (advisor) ; Maňák, Vratislav (referee)
This bachelor's thesis deals with the critical and reader response to sexual and racial diversity in young adult (YA) literature. First of all, It tries to define the terms YA literature, diversity and review. It describes the specifics of this literary category and its readers, together with a description of the dystopia and fantasy genres. It also focuses on the diverse representation of race and sexuality in adolescent literature. Subsequently, it analyzes the diversity of the books Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and Six Crows by Leigh Bardugh, including their Czech and foreign media coverage. The publications are first described in terms of plot, then the characters and their environment are examined from the point of diversity, and finally reader and critical comments on the topic of representation of selected diversities are taken into account. In this thesis the Czech media scene is represented by the readers website databazeknih.cz, the literary magazines Pevnost and XB-1, as well as the website iDNES.cz. The reader website Goodreads and the literary sections of The New York Times, Publishers Weekly and KIRKUS magazines represent the foreign reviews. Last but not least, the media coverage of the given books is compared. The aim of the thesis is to find out how significant is the response...

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