National Repository of Grey Literature 198 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.03 seconds. 

Human evolution and anthropology of recent populations
Sládek, Vladimír ; Galeta, P. ; Blažek, V.
Proceedings from the anthropological panel of 21st World congress of Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences.

Fungal genetics, genome evolution and use of flow cytometry in study of DNA
Würtherlová, Tereza ; Kostovčík, Martin (referee) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (advisor)
The fungal genome is a dynamically changing structure. By its remodelling, the organism can respond to the environmental changes and develop itself. The genome expansion is often accompanied by transition to parasitic or mutualistic way of life. The genome expansion can be caused by the multiplication of some chromosomes (aneuploidisation), the whole genome duplication (polyploidisation) or the spreading of repetitive sequences. The impact of genome size to the ecology and life strategy of the organisms is more and more studied in recent years. In mycology, nevertheless, it escapes sufficient attention. The flow cytometry (FCM) is a modern and progressively developing method that enables to determine the genome size and estimate CG/AT base ratio. The combination of FCM with knowledge of the fungal ecology and forces that form the genome enable to discover a general trends of the evolutionary processes. My study summarises knowledge about the processes leading to changes in the size/structure of the fungal genome, the correlations with genome size and presents the principle of flow cytometry and its application in mycology.

Evolution of Karl Davydov cello concerts
Boiprav, Anna ; ERICSSON, Mikael (advisor) ; STRAŠIL, Tomáš (referee)
This master thesis is focused on analyzing the development of cello concerts written by Russian composer, respected cellist and teacher Karl Julievich Davydov. In the first place, the analysis is about the upward development of the genre – from virtuosic type of concerts to virtuosic-symphonic type of cello concerts. This thesis is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter in the three subsections is focused on typing and characterization of string concerts. The second chapter in the six subsections devoted to the context of Western European traditions and peculiarities of the development of cello art in Russia. The third chapter in two separate sections and four smaller subsections focus on the personality of Karl Julievich Davydov, periodization of his work and analysis of his cello concerts.

Evolution of photoreceptors: insights from amphioxus
Vopálenský, Pavel ; Kozmik, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Černý, Robert (referee) ; Markoš, Anton (referee)
The topic of eye evolutionwas touchedas early as at the very beginningof the evolutionarytheoryitself.In his book'On theOrign of Species'CharlesDarwinexpresses concemsfor theexplanationof theocclurenceof complexeyesby naturalselection.Eventhe simplest'proto-eye'composedof a singlephotoreceptorcellanda shadingpigmentrequires properfrrnctioningof dozensof genesinvolvedin the phototansductioncascade,signal transmissionand pigmentation.Photoreceptorcells can be classifiedaccordingto their morphology as ciliary or rhabdomeric.Primary observationsrevealedthe rhabdomeric photoreceptorsbeing predominantlypresentin the eyes of invertebrates,whereasthe vertebrateandcnidarianseyesemploytheciliary type.Key componentsof thephotoreceptor cells arevisualpigments(opsins)andassociatedGa subunitsresponsiblefor absorptionof photonandthefirst stepof aphotoffansductioncascade.To properlyorchesftatetheassembly of thesestructuralgenesmediatingbiochemicalprocessesinto a functionalorgan,a tight regulationby a dedicatedsetof tanscriptionfactorsis required.Oneof themostremarkable andbeststudiedexamplesof geneswith anevolutionaryconservedrole in eyeorganogenesis is a paired-homeoboxgenePax6.However,availableliteraturepointsto othertranscription factors participatingin photoreceptordevelopmentacrossanimal phyla, for examplea...

Evolution of the use of memory
Polák, Marek ; Kadlec, Rudolf (referee) ; Holan, Tomáš (advisor)
The task of the bachelor work is to give a proposal and its implementation of application for simulating evolution of population. The outcome is a study of dependency of memory usage on energy of organishms in their environment. From ndings of simulation batches it could be said what parameters are useful for given environment from view of count of conditions to spent of energy, which organishm leeds to its life.

The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt: The Ideological Development, Contemporary Positions and Prospects in the Context oof Post-Mubarak Transition
Hladová, Magdaléna ; Kučera, Rudolf (advisor) ; Riegl, Martin (referee)
The PhDr. thesis explores the ideological development, contemptorary positions and political prospects of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. It follows the movement's long evolution on the background of its relations with the successive regimes of Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak, examines its current discourse on "Islamic democracy" including its stated commitment to political pluralism, the principle of citizenship as well as the related subject of women's and non-muslim's rights, analyses its recent attempt to formulate a party platform and discusses the Brothershood's role and prospects in the context of transition after the fall of authoritarian regime of Hosni Mubarak.

Representation Techniques for Evolutionary Design of Cellular Automata
Kovács, Martin ; Drábek, Vladimír (referee) ; Bidlo, Michal (advisor)
The aim of this thesis is to experimentally evaluate the performance of several distinct representations of transition functions for cellular automata. Cellular automata have many potential applications for simulating various phenomena (e.g. natural processes, physical systems, etc.). Parallel computation of cellular automata is based on local cell interactions. Such computation, however, may prove difficult to program the CA, which is the reason for applying evolutionary techniques for the design of cellular automata in many cases. Evolutionary algorithms, based on Darwin's theory of evolution, have been used to find human-competitive solutions to many problems. In order to perform the evolutionary design of cellular automata, special encodings of the candidate solutions are often necessary. For this purpose the performance testing of various representations of the transition functions will be investigated. In particular, table representation, conditionally matching rules, and genetic programming will be treated. The problem of square calculations in cellular automata will be considered as a case study.

Origins of vertebrate hematiopoiesis
Svoboda, Ondřej ; Bartůněk, Petr (advisor) ; Divoký, Vladimír (referee) ; Živný, Jan (referee)
(ENGLISH) Hematopoiesis is dependent on the actions of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This process is tightly controlled through a complex array of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Even though the hematopoiesis seems to be well conserved across the disparate vertebrate animals, erythroid and thrombocytic differentiation have changed during the evolution of mammals. Specifically, adult mammalian red blood cells have the unique feature of being enucleated, and mammalian thrombocytes are not individual cells, but fragments of megakaryocytes, instead. It is likely that these enhancements provided a survival advantage to early mammalian species; however, they also bring up the question of evolutionary origin of these cells that studied using zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. First, it was necessary to generate a toolbox of a recombinant cytokines and optimized culture media that allowed us to manipulate zebrafish hematopoietic cells ex vivo in liquid and clonal cultures. Interestingly, teleost species underwent an extra duplication event during their evolution and as a result, two copies (paralogs) of some of the genes are present in zebrafish. This was also the case for majority of the cytokines from our toolbox and here, we provide functional characterization of these paralogs. Strikingly, our results...

Origin of sociality in mongooses (\kur{Carnivora, Herpestidae})
The origin, evolutionary polarity and possible causes of sociality in Herpestidae (Carnivora) are not clear. In this study, I compiled data matrix of 48 ontogenetic, reproductive, ecological and behavioural characters of mongooses. I used parsimonny optimization of the character states onto phylogenetic tree for reconstruction of the ancestral condition , and I examined the role of ecological factors and changes in body mass in social evolution in mongooses.

Evolutionary implications of innate immunity receptors polymorphism
Bainová, Zuzana ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Zajícová, Alena (referee)
Interactions between hosts and their parasites are considered to be one of the major forces driving animal evolution. It can be assumed that the evolutionary changes will occur especially in host molecules directly involved in these interactions. The first line of host defense is formed by innate immunity receptors among which also pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belong. PRRs detect the presence of parasites at the beginning of their invasion by binding characteristic structures of their bodies (so called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs, e. g. lipopolysaccharide, flagellin or peptidoglycans) or abnormal self molecules (damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs, e.g heat shock proteins). Although this mechanism of immune system activation is based on the recognition of ligands that are relatively evolutionarily conservative in pathogens, growing body of evidence suggests that PRRs are highly polymorphic on both interspecific and intraspecific level. High frequencies of minority alleles can be observed in most populations studied. It has been proven that particular alleles of many PRRs may associate with increased or decreased resistance to various infectious or autoimmunity diseases. Relationship between polymorphic receptor and a disease could be the main force, which shapes the...