National Repository of Grey Literature 142 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The Machine in the early works of Ernst Jünger
Miller, Václav ; Starý, Jiří (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee)
This thesis deals with the concept of the machine in the works of the German writer Ernst Jünger (1895-1998). It analyses the author's opinions about the machine and technology expressed in his essays, as well as the way how Ernst Jünger depicts the machine in his war memoirs. Due to the considerable amount of the author's publications, only his early work is taken into consideration. This creative period begins 1918 with Jüngers return from the front-line service and ends, from the specific perspective of the chosen subject, 1932 with the publication of the essay The Worker. The mentioned essay represents together with a shorter paper titled Total Mobilization (1930) a separate chapter in the author's understanding of technology and is therefore given adequate space in the present thesis. The writer's concepts of machine and technology, which have been published prior to the Worker, are largely observed in the light of this later development of his ideas. In the final chapter it is attempted to show how the structure of the author's front-line experience is reflected in some of his ideas concerning the problem of modern technology.
Henri Bergson: Philosophy and Perception
Hřídel, Jan ; Čapek, Jakub (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee)
(in English): The thesis deals with Henri Bergson's theory of perception. Bergson approached the problem of perception in an original way, namely in terms of life, action and movement. The starting point of this inquiry is his claim that if perception is de iure a picture of the whole but de facto confined to what we are interested in, then we should not ask how perception is produced, but how it is limited. I trace this line of thought mainly in the work Matter and Memory; subsequently, I try to relate it to Bergson's urge that perception should be expanded and deepened beyond the level of attention given to practical activity. I develop the notion of expanded perception on the basis of Bergson's texts in The Creative Mind, and in this connection I reflects on mental life as a movement on the continuum, two senses of life and two conceptions of freedom.
Prášek, Petr ; Petříček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Novotný, Karel (referee) ; Romano, Claude (referee)
The Becoming-other of the Existence, Essay on Contemporary Phenomenology, is both a systematic and a historical study of phenomenology. By choosing a systematic problem of becoming-other of the existence it attempts to present and to confront five major contemporary phenomenologists in France within a single phenomenological field: Henri Maldiney, Claude Romano, Jean-Luc Marion, Renaud Barbaras, and Marc Richir. The study enters phenomenology with Edmund Husserl and presents some key original concepts invented by two generations of post-husserlian authors who marked out the road to contemporary phenomenology: Martin Heidegger, Erwin Straus, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jan Patočka, Emmanuel Lévinas. Then it turns to "evential empiricism" in the work of Maldiney and Romano who consider the existent and the world in their belonging-together: the event is thus understood as co-birth of the subject and the world. Nevertheless, because of the fact that the existence that "becomes-other" is necessarily a finite existence, a radically separated existence from the metaphysical transcendence of the world, three other authors must become involved in the discussion: Marion, whose adonné is a limit of the givenness, and then Barbaras and Richir who explore the most archaic layers of the subjectivity within a...
G. Lipovetsky: The Painless Ethics
Zavadilová, Tereza ; Jirsa, Jakub (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee)
The bachelor thesis follows and critically interprets the proposition about the development of ethics and morality in Le Crépuscule du devoir by Gilles Lipovetsky on the specific examples of the approaches towards ethics that are noted by author himself. The thesis clarifies in which cases is his philosophical and sociological diagnosis, analysis and prediction justified and where it is on the contrary problematic and why. His general proposition is that contemporary moral "boom" is actually a "shock" and not only a "comeback" or a "revitalization" of the traditional morality. According to him, it would be no exaggeration to say that contemporary morality is definitely leaving the traditional one behind. The ambition of the thesis is to understand previous periods of ethical thought, defined by Lipovetsky as religious and lay ethics, and also to clarify the character and typical manifestations of his "postmoral ethics of the third type" with neither religious nor lay basis in form of duty. The thesis analyses the tension and inner discrepancies of that "painless" ethics stated by Lipovetsky. The aim is also to justify the "applied ethics of responsibility" formulated by Lipovetsky, which is to be set in the period of "the twilight of duty".
Commento sopra una canzone d'amore in Context of Its Time
Herůfek, Jan ; Pelán, Jiří (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee) ; Žáčková, Magdalena (referee)
The doctoral thesis Commento sopra una canzone dʼamore in the Context of Its Times, divided into four chapters, focuses on an analysis of the concept of love as perceived by the Italian humanist G. Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494). As Giovanni Pico was an author who lived and worked in the Italian Quattrocento, in the first chapter ("Italian Humanist Giovanni Pico: Portrait Attempt") the attention is focused on the concept of studia humanitatis. His relation to the study of classical languages (Greek and Latin), rhetoric, philosophy and theology is examined in the first part ("Pico between Rhetoric and Philosophy"). Here we deal with the question whether Pico like other Italian humanists adopted the contemporary phenomenon, i. e. the discovery of sources of ancient wisdom (ad fontes). And thus Pico can be grouped with intellectuals of the type of M. Ficino and A. Poliziano, who set themselves the task of creating critical editions of philosophical texts, or, rather, whether Pico used humanist tools (especially rhetoric) to introduce his humanistic philosophical-theological concept. Pico seems to have selected the latter option and he systematically presented his humanistic conception in his works dating from 1486 to 1489 (e.g. Oratio 1486, Conclusiones 1486, Apologia 1487 and Heptaplus 1489). The...
Coincidence as the animator of the indenpendent Czech art of the 1960s
Kulová, Eva ; Wittlich, Petr (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee) ; Konečný, Lubomír (referee)
Coincidence as the animator of the independent Czech art of the 1960s We are currently progressing to viewing coincidence as a phenomenon. While coincidence cannot be explained, it needs to be understood. It may be an important program principle of the universe, where coincidence may give life and matters a different direction, and it is undoubtedly part of all of our creative and resourceful efforts. Therefore, we treasure coincidence and in art, we even intentionally call for it frequently. Naturally, the history of art gives us many examples, where coincidence helped an artist to revive their imagination and strengthened their ability to improvise. Dealing with coincidence and activating coincidence intentionally or unintentionally have always been one of the most tantalising moments of many creative endeavours. It is interesting to observe how the role of coincidence and its impact in art, as well as in a human life intermittently diminishes only to resurface again as if in connection with measuring the powers of the acting individual and the current being. It is exciting to follow the complex movement of coincidence in the wide field of potential meanings and understanding, somewhere between Freedom, Necessity, Fate, Fortune, Higher Power or perhaps Providence, and examine the complexity of...
Normalized social distance
Šlerka, Josef ; Souček, Jiří (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee) ; Macek, Jakub (referee)
This dissertation thesis deals with the application of the concept of information distance to the social network data analysis. We consider this data as recorded acts of social action. As such, they express certain attitudes, values and intentions. We introduce a formula for calculating the Normalized Social Distance and, based on the series of case studies, we prove the usefulness and validity of this approach. The application of formal mathematical and computer science techniques to massive data records of human action in social network environments is enabled by the change brought by new media and the associated technological advancement. This change is accompanied by a gradual transition of research methods in the humanities, referred to as the onset of digital humanities. This approach is characterized by the application of quantitative methods in the field of humanities and the discovery of new data areas useful for analyses. In case of social media data, the differentiation between quantitative and qualitative methods is no longer valid. A good example is also this thesis, in which information theory specifically combines the methods of a traditional social network analysis and the Goffman's frame analysis of human action. Keywords Information distance, Normalized Social Distance, Kolmogorov...
Memory and Time in Augustine's Confessiones and in Proust's A la Recherche du Temps Perdu
Roreitnerová, Alena ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee) ; Pokorný, Martin (referee)
This presented paper is a parallel reading of two works which both connect a philosophical perception of time and memory with an actual narration. The first is one of the earliest spiritual autobiographies of late antiquity - Confessions - and the second is a modern novel - In Search of Lost Time. A distinctive (originally Neoplatonic) understanding of eternity as simultaneity opens a line of questioning which both Confessions and In Search of Lost Time have in common: What is the relation between time and eternity (extra-temporality in Proust's case) and is it possible at all for a time being to have a relation to something what is eternal? In both works, the mediating role between time succession and timeless simultaneity is played by narration and memory. Part I of the paper (Chapter 1) deals with Augustine's understanding of time which can be found not only in Book XI of Confessions but also throughout the whole work including its narrative passages; it also partly takes into consideration Book VI of De musica. It tries to answer a more general question, i.e. whether Augustine in his autobiography concentrates only on subjective time or whether he is interested in time as such (in contrast to eternity). The answer is intended to be found through the analysis of questions the author of...
The Ontological Mystery in Gabriel Marcel's Philosophy
Zeman, Daniel ; Petříček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Čapek, Jakub (referee)
The purpose of the thesis is to explain the most significant points in Gabriel Marcel's thinking, which means his idea of "concrete philosophy", distinction between problematic and meta-problematic (mystery), the ontological need and the existential notion of hope. It should be indicated at least that it is necessary to understand Marcel's accounts as primarily philosophical, not theological, even though he is numbered among french Christian thinkers. The thesis proceeds from several diverse writings, because of Marcel's essayistic rather than systematic style, though mainly from his most coherent publication called Le Mystère de l'Être.
... and Woman Does Not Exist. Considering Woman's Subjectivity and Facticity in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex
Zittová, Kristýna Sára ; Kouba, Petr (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee)
(in English) How can we explain political oppression if we claim ourselves to be metaphysically free subjects? As a basis of The Second Sex, the question is there analyzed in its specific case - a woman. According to Beauvoir, woman has been expelled to an immanent domain, surrounded by the shared world, foreign to her in its absolute giveness. Yet at the same time, she claims just as Sartre does that freedom, transcendence, and the world are inseparable parts of the structure of a subject. Can these claims be truly brought together? In most cases, interpretations of The Second Sex turn to one and omit the other. Contrariwise, the aim of this thesis is to preserve both, and in the light of Being and Nothingness explain them as parts of one structure. I demonstrate that ontologically, woman and man are transcending, free subjects. Man chooses his own fundamental project for himself, and with this choice the world appears in its meaning - as his own. Man can thus choose from his possibilities either authentically, or run from his condemnation to freedom towards insecurity. For woman, her fundamental project is chosen by others and she only accepts it - and with it, a foreign world which belongs to men appears to her. Therefore, she factically remains in her immanent domain of womanhood. Her situation...

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