National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Evolutional origin of the both-sexes exaggerated structures
Zběžek, Martin ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Figura, Roman (referee)
In animal realm, we often meet with body structures that in varying degrees go beyond the limits of their effectiveness and may seems like a burden for its owner rather than a benefit. In case these exaggerated structures are found only with representatives of one sex (we don't think artificial selection applied by humans on their domesticated fauna or sporadic pathological mutations), it is usually not a problem to explain their evolutionary origin through sexual selection. In most of these cases it is sexual selection applied by females on males. The situation is getting complicated, when these traits are present on representatives of both sexes. The search for explanation is less straightforward, and while we are doing it, we must pay thorough attention to the ecology and genetic dispositions of the specific species. Key words animals, exaggerated structures, evolution
Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period
Hrudka, Jan ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Stingl, Josef (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze Přírodovědecká fakulta Studijní program: Filosofie a dějiny přírodních věd MUDr. Jan Hrudka Nádory v dějinném a kulturním kontextu v novověku Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period Disertační práce Školitel / Supervisor: Prof. RNDr. Stanislav Komárek, Dr. Praha, 2017 SUMMARY: The PhD thesis called Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period is an attempt to describe a change of medical thinking in modern period; science and medicine turns from antique humoral pathology, explaining all diseases as an imbalance of the four body humours, to pathological anatomy and experimental physiology. In the point of view of pathological anatomy, the viscera of diseased person are no more "screen" or "mirror" of the disease, but it becomes directly the "stage" or "theatre" of the acting disease. This shift in the thought may be labelled as movement from humoralism to localism or ontologism; the disease isn't just abnormal amount of some natural juice any more, but becomes new original entity. This change undergoes the understanding of tumours and cancerous disease as well. Instead of antique understanding tumours as precipitates of black bile, the cell theory occurs in the 19th century. This theory explains tumours as a mass of cells undergoing excessive...
Skull trepanation in archaic ethnics
Moravec, Tomáš ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Hroníková, Linda (referee)
This thesis is focused on skull trepanation in archaic ethnics. Trepanation has been used since the Stone Age almost all around the world and since that time have occured the constantly improved tools, trepanation techniques and used anesthesia. However to the present time we are not sure, what exactly was the motivation of then primitive nations to perform such a dangerous procedure. Trepanation has been the subject of many researches since the 19th century, which has been tasked with bringing closer knowledge about the procedure and what was the reason for doing it. This work should provide general knowledge about the topic of trepanations.
Factors influencing worldwide zoo collections of lizards, snakes, turtles and crocodiles: effect of conservation status, body size and their attractiveness to humans
Janovcová, Markéta ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee)
There is a large number of species existing in the world; each year, however, the number of the endangered ones rapidly increases. Nowadays, captive breeding becomes an option for their survival in refugees. Sufficient population with satisfactory breeding management gives hope for survival to the endangered species (in mid-term) or even possible future reintroduction to their natural habitat. WAZA is currently the world's leading association of worldwide zoos and similar breeding facilities. Because these institutions operate as a network to facilitate the exchange of reared individuals, for conservation purposes, their captive populations may be seen as one large population characterized by its size, i.e., the total number of individuals. Such view is currently recognized by many conservationists as the so-called concept of Noah's Ark. The space on the Ark is limited, therefore it is needed to heed the characteristics of the species aboard to maximize the conservation potential. Many factors influence the presence of species in zoological gardens. Following previous studies we selected some factors that may be important, i.e., body lenght, taxonomy, and IUCN status. Analysis of these factors among the main reptile clades shall reveal the pattern of reptile composition in worldwide zoos. One of the factors...
Metaphors of Madness: Silenced Myth-Makers and Disordered Brains.
Müller, Matyáš ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Horáček, Ivan (referee) ; Fulka, Josef (referee)
The work has basically three aims: 1st to map the wide range of various approaches in the current debate about madness, 2nd to formulate a specific theory of madness, 3rd to identify general philosophical problems the topic brings about, (a 4th aim is also outlined: to understand the presented theory in terms of therapeutic potential). The central thesis of this work is that insanity is an inherently ambiguous and elusive phenomenon and that trying to understand it we are using various metaphors borrowed from other areas, and consequently forget their metaphorical nature. The work is generally motivated by an effort to reconcile conflicting approaches, to understand them as complementary. It also wants to avoid creating an all-embracing synthesis on the one hand, and purely relativistic and pragmatic viewpoint on the other hand. The first part identifies four levels on which particular approaches understand madness as a problem: the level of the individual, the level of the collective, the transpersonal level and the existential level. At the end of the part, I discuss the possibilities and risks of creating a theoretical framework that would enable to understand various contradictory approaches on a common basis. In the second part, I develop my own analysis of madness. It is based on a...
Perception of beauty of mammals in Prague ZOO: Influence of respondents' age and education
Poláková, Petra ; Landová, Eva (advisor) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee)
1 Abstract Every year, the number of species considered as endangered increases, especially due to human activities. Nowadays, captive breeding in zoological gardens becomes an option for their survival in refugees. Zoological gardens function as so-called "Noah's Ark", which has the potential to shelter a large amount of individuals from many species. In the future, this opportunity may give us a chance to reintroduce a species that disappeared in the nature. There are many factors influencing which species will be selected to be kept in zoos, e.g., the IUCN status, taxonomical uniqueness, availability, etc., but it was found that especially the size of the animal and the human aesthetic preferences affect the selection. However, every group of animals is evaluated independently in the terms of beauty, and thus, it is necessary to detect these rules and then to apply them to conservation projects. This thesis examines the factors that influence human aesthetic preferences to mammals, both in terms of the characteristics of animals (their colour and morphology), and in terms of human factors (gender, age, education, residence). It was found that especially the pattern, saturation and overall lightness of the animal affect the evaluation of beauty in mammals. On the other hand, dark colours are evaluated...
Ethics of biological invasions
Klimeš, Adam ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Jirsa, Jakub (referee)
The Ethics of Biological Invasions Etika biologických invazí Řešitel: Adam Klimeš Vedoucí práce: prof. RNDr. Stanislav Komárek, Dr. Abstract There is a considerable attention ascribed to the phenomenon of biological invasions - to the fast spread of nonnative species in certain area. However evaluation of the biological invasions is usually limited to the calculation of damage costs and means spent on the control of nonnative species. The ethical aspect is marginalized this way, although as it conserns living orgamisms, such aspect is inevitably present. Presented study deals with identification, foundation and analysis of all values threatened by biological invasion or by its control. This can be considered as basis for establishment of an ethical approach to evaluation of biological invasions. Indentified values are instrumental value, value of individuals, species, live and esthetic value.
Effects of pattern, size and background contrast of prey on discrimination learning in avian predators
Kuncová, Aneta ; Exnerová, Alice (advisor) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee)
The topic of this master thesis was the effects of pattern, size and background contrast of prey on discrimination learning of avian predators. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected components of warning coloration on aversive discrimination learning of avian predators of different age and sex. The choosen model organism was the Great tit (Parus major). The comparision was done between hand-reared naïve birds and wild-caught adults of different age and sex. The experiment was taking place in the experimental cage with one way mirror. The experiment used a design of simultaneous task with two pray which differed in one component of the coloration (pattern, size and background kontrast). The differencies in the ability of discrimination learning was found just between hand-rared naïve birds and wild-caught adults. Better results were shown by the wild-caught adults. The ability of discrimination learning of wild-caught adults was not influenced by the age and sex. Pattern was the only significant component of the warning coloration due to which the birds were able to memorise the discrimination task. Key words: avoidance learning, unpalatable prey, pattern, size, background, contrast
Social applications of myrmecology between Aldrovandi and Wilson
Hampl, Petr ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Horáček, Ivan (referee) ; Bezděčková, Klára (referee)
The following dissertation presents the history of myrmecology from the times of Ulisse Aldrovandi up to the works of Edward O. Wilson in the 20th century. The oldest mentions of ants in the Antiquity and the Middle Ages are also partially elaborated upon. A special emphasis is given to the general idea about ants as developed by each of the authors, as well as to the mapping out of the contemporary ideas about social insect. This work points out that the portrait of the ant has always been related to the contemporary conception of human society and humanity as such. Throughout its history, myrmecology has always been strongly influenced by anthropomorphism, as the picture of the ant would be derived from the social order, political system and the general opinion on what constitutes human nature. On the other hand, though, myrmecology has also helped to shape the picture of humanity, because the conclusions drawn from myrmecological studies were applied to humans. Therefore, entomology started to influence anthropology and vice versa. In the Antiquity, ants were viewed basically as farmers; only harvester ants were known, they were seen as working on a field, going to the marketplace or holding celebratory festivals. The medieval picture of the ant drew heavily on the Antiquity ideas, but it added...

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