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Contributions to Soil Zoology in Central Europe III. Proceedings of the Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology
Tajovský, Karel ; Schlaghamerský, J. ; Pižl, Václav
The proceedings of the Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology involves papers based on the lectures and posters presented at the meeting held in České Budějovice on April 17-20, 2007. In total 32 contributions reflect different aspects of soil zoological research, e.g. taxonomy, ecology and biology of soil fauna, physiology of soil invertebrates, the impact of human activities on soil fauna etc.
The impact of ungulates on epigeic assemblages of centipedes (Chilopoda) in the Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area - preliminary results
Aurová, Klára
The Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area and Biosphere Reserve (Czech Republic) represents a unique region covered in a high portion by forest ecosystems. Densities of ungulates in the forests are unusually high. Their impact on ecosystem is important, especially due to the removal and consumption of herbage, trampling of soil and vegetation, and the return of excreta. The aim of field study was to elucidate the impact of ungulates on soil invertebrates represented by centipedes. In this paper the first data about possible impact of ungulates on epigeic assemblage of centipedes are presented. In total, 9 centipede species were recorded. The species .i.Lithobius mutabilis./i. was dominant during the whole observation in all monitored plots. At the beginning of the experiment in 1994, this centipede outweighed other species with 91 %. After 12 years in 2006 the amount of other species arose almost up to 1/4 outside and more than 1/3 inside the fenced plots.
Seasonal development and vertical distribution of soil rotifer populations in South-Bohemian beech forest
Devetter, Miloslav
The soil rotifer community in a climax beech forest in South Bohemia was investigated during 2005 focusing on seasonal and vertical distribution changes. Samples 10 cm.sup.2./sup. large and 10 cm in depth were divided into 5 layers, which were processed separately. Altogether 31 rotifer species were determined during the investigation, of these 9 species were monogononts, while the rest were bdelloids. The most important species were .i.Encentrum arvicola, Wierzejskiella vagneri./i. among the monogononts and .i.Adineta steineri, Ceratotrocha cornigera, Habrotrocha filum, H. ligula, Macrotrachela plicata, Mniobia tentans, M. incrassata, M. granulosa./i. among the bdelloids. Mean Shannon diversity index varied from 1.99 to 2.63. Total rotifer abundance varied from 212 (± 63) to 513 (± 127) 10.sup.3./sup. ind. m.sup.-2./sup. year-round, with the highest numbers found in May, while the lowest were in July.
Microarthropods and microbial participation in oak and beech litter decomposition
Farská, Jitka ; Jínová, Kristýna ; Jirout, Jiří ; Petrásek, Jiří ; Čápová, Lenka ; Rusek, Josef ; Krištůfek, Václav ; Elhottová, Dana ; Starý, Josef
The aim of our work was to describe the impact of a simulated vegetation zone shift to higher altitudes (i) on the quantity and quality of microarthropods and microbial communities, and (ii) on the decomposition rate of allochthonous leaf litter. In November 2002, 480 litterbags filled with oak or beech leaf litter were placed into spruce and beech forests (950 m a. s. l.) on Kleť Mt. (1083 m; Blanský les Protected Landscape Area, South Bohemia). Three different mesh sizes were used for certain soil biota exclusion: > 2 mm, 0.5 mm and 42 μm. Litterbags were sampled after 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of exposure in the field. Litter pH and moisture were determined in the laboratory immediately after retrieval. Soil microarthropods (Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola) were extracted using Tullgren funnels. Soil bacteria and micromycetes were isolated using the dilution plate method and specific growth media.
Soil nematodes in ungulate grazed and ungrazed forests of the Křivoklátsko Biosphere Reserve -- first results of an ongoing project
Háněl, Ladislav
The effect of ungulate grazing on various woodland ecosystems was studied in oak-hornbeam forest, subxerothermic oak forest, and herb-rich beech forest of the Křivoklátsko Biosphere Reserve. Samples of soil nematodes were taken in May 2006 from plots within enclosures established in 1993 and from plots outside the enclosures. The total abundance of nematodes varied from 248.7 to 790.0 x 10.sup.4./sup. ind.m.sup.-2./sup. and was always greater outside the enclosures. In two cases out of four the difference was statistically significant. Bacterivores were the most numerous nematodes. Their abundance was greater only in one plot outside the enclosure in the oak-hornbeam forest and about one half of the bacterivores were short-living .i.Rhabditis./i.. The abundance of root-fungal feeders (mainly .i.Filenchus./i.) was always greater outside the enclosures than within enclosures.
Species and genera of soil nematodes inhabiting tree plantations on colliery spoils near Sokolov
Háněl, Ladislav
Soil nematodes were studied in 20-30-year-old tree plantations and spontaneous successions on colliery spoils near Sokolov in west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Six types of tree plantations (oak, alder, linden, larch, pine, and spruce) and one type of spontaneous succession (willow-aspen-birch), each in four replicate sites, were surveyed in March 2005 and in April 2006. In total 174 species and 86 genera were distinguished, more species and genera were found in deciduous than in coniferous plantations. Cluster analyses showed different composition of nematode faunas in those plantations. Co-occurrence of closely related .i.Aporcelaimellus, Helicotylenchus./i. species could suggest their still existing niche overlap in a developing environment whereas niche partitioning probably established between species of the genera .i.Eudorylaimus./i. and .i.Paratylenchus./i..
Vertical Collembola distribution in spruce and beech forest soils
Jínová, Kristýna
Vertical stratification of Collembola was investigated in beech and spruce forest soils on the Kleť Mountain (Blanský les Protected Landscape Area, South Bohemia, Czech Republic). The aim of the study was to describe the collembolan distribution among the horizons in the present beech and spruce forest soils and to find out which species were dominant in the individual soil layers. Ten soil samples (each of 10 cm.sup.2./sup., 15 cm deep) were collected in beech and spruce forest on the Kleť Mt. in December 2004. They were divided into 5 sub-samples: litter + 0-1 cm of soil; 1-2, 2-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm and extracted separately in high-gradient Tullgren apparatus. In total, 40 species were found at both sites (31 in the beech and 28 in the spruce forest). The highest number of species was found in the upper layer (litter layer + 0-1 cm) of soil, 84 % of species in the beech forest and 64 % in the spruce forest.
Interactions between the soil micro-flora and invertebrates in Slovak and Moravian caves
Lukešová, Alena ; Nováková, Alena
The role of microflora as food for soil invertebrates is well documented. However, data on interactions between communities of organisms living in caves are very limited. Three caves of the Slovak Karst NP (Domica Cave, Dlhá Chodba Cave, Ardovská Cave) and the Amatérská Cave (Moravian Karst) were selected for this study because from visual observations, it was clear that there was some invertebrate activity. The aim of the study was to compare the communities of algae, cyanobacteria and microscopic fungi developing in excrements of cave invertebrates and in the surrounding cave sediment. The richest communities of both algae and microfungi were found in earthworm casts, containing up to two fold more species than in the surrounding sediment (73 species of microscopic fungi in the casts compared to 37 in surrounding cave sediment in the Domica Cave, and 45 vs. 27 species of algae in the Dlhá Chodba Cave).
Earthworm assemblages on afforested colliery spoil heaps as affected by tree species
Pižl, Václav
Earthworm assemblages were analysed at twenty-eight colliery spoil heap sites of similar age located in the Sokolov open-cast coal mining district, north-western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Sites afforested with different tree species, namely spruce, pine, larch, oak, lime, and alder, were selected for the study in four replicates each, and compared with un-reclaimed sites covered with spontaneously developed vegetation. No difference was found in the density of earthworms between un-reclaimed sites and coniferous stands, however, a significant effect of tree species on worm density was observed at sites with deciduous afforestation. Dense earthworm populations developed in alder and lime plantations, while worm density was significantly lower under oak. Similarly, earthworm biomass at sites with coniferous afforestation did not differ from that of un-reclaimed heaps and was significantly lower than those at sites with deciduous afforestation.
Collembola, Protura and Pauropoda in a riparian forest - mesic forest
Rusek, Josef ; Reithofer, D. ; Schmid, S. ; Truxa, Ch. ; Weber, J. ; Wilde, U.
Communities of soil Collembola, Protura and Pauropoda were studied in a riparian forest - mesic forest ecotone in the Stromovka Park in the inundation zone of the Vltava River in České Budějovice, South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Ten soil samples, each 10 cm.sup.2./sup. and 5 cm deep, were taken on April 3rd, 2000 in each of five parallel rows from the swampy part without water (row I). Row II was 1 m to the east from row I in a dense .i.Pragmites communis./i. uderstory of the .i.Populus canadensis, Quercus robus./i. dominated riparian forest. Row III was 5 m to the east with the same understory composition, and IV was 10 m further to the east with less dense .i.Phragmites./i. understory growth mixed with grasses and .i.Geranium silvaticum./i. and other understory herbs and poplar and oak litter on the soil surface. Row V was 5 m from row IV in a mesic forest with .i.Quercus robur, Betula alba./i. trees and grass with mosses in understory.

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