National Repository of Grey Literature 61 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Bioturbation and its role in soil formation
Burešová, Andrea ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee)
Bioturbation in degradated soils can improve colonization of habitat by plants and fauna, which positively influence soil properties and improve the soil regeneration. Bad conditions dominate in habitats where bioturbation activity inhibiting this colonization, and soil degradation can be increased and affect the soil erosion. The absence of soil bioturbators is noticeable from soil micromorfology. To compare with stands, where soil bioturbators are present, here we will not find any biostructures and mixing of soil profile is minimal. The result is, alter alia, low amount of soil organic matter leading to higher competition for nutrients among units. In this thesis the main factor influencing present of soil ecosystem engineers, in this case earthworms,is clima. Comparimg soil micromorfology of four habitats placed on climatic gradient from east to west of USA can be inferred, which role play soil bioturbators in first five centimetres of soil. Was determine how soil structure is affected by their activity during three successional phases and which factors influence thein presence or absence. In conclusion, differences between climatic conditions lead to different succession of ecosystem,mainly composition of different species in the community. It leads to variable soil structure characteristic...
Wood ants of genus Formica as important ecosystem engeneers
Jílková, Veronika ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee) ; Bonkowski, Michael (referee)
This thesis consists of one chapter accepted for publication in a book and four papers published in international journals with impact factors. All of the contributions deal with the role of wood ants in energy and nutrient fluxes in forest ecosystems. Wood ant nests are known as hot spots of carbon dioxide (CO2) production and are also thought to affect methane (CH4) flux. Stable high temperatures are maintained in ant nests even in cold environments. This study is focused on quantification of CO2 and CH4 flux in wood ant nests, contribution of ants and microbes to CO2 production, properties of nest material that affect CO2 production and the role of ants and microbes in the maintenance of nest temperature. The research was conducted in temperate and boreal forests inhabited by wood ants (Formica s. str.). Gas fluxes were measured either by an infrared gas analyser or a static chamber technique. Ants and nest materials were also incubated in a laboratory. Material properties potentially influencing CO2 flux, such as moisture, nutrient content or temperature were determined. According to the results, CH4 oxidation was lower in wood ant nests than in the surrounding forest soil suggesting that some characteristics of ant nests hinder CH4 oxidation or promote CH4 production. Wood ant nests clearly are hot...
Using of soil microstructure in study of soil fauna bioturbation in post mining sites
Suchá, Linda ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee)
The paper follows up on previous analyses of changes in soil microstructure in the process of soil development on dumps around Sokolov, Czech Republic, using the soil thin section method. The distribution of structures in the topsoil of the profile was studied in two chronosequences, one overgrown with spontaneous vegetation and one reclaimed by alder planting. A comparison with historical data obtained at these locations 10 years ago was used, and, therefore, the same methods were also applied (Frouz et al., 2007b). The most distinct trend in the process of soil development over time, as observed through both a comparison of soil thin sections from various areas of chronosequence and changes in particular sites over time, is a gradual reduction of purely mineral structures and their replacement by organic matter - litter and its fragments, faecal pellets of arthropods, earthworms coprolites, and roots. This is illustrative of a high share of biogenic structures and a fundamental contribution of organisms to forming topsoil, a fact also pointed out by other authors. Keywords: Soil macrofauna; Soil microstructure; Soil thin section; Reclamation; Post-mining sites; Soil development; Earthworms
The role of soil macrofauna in organic matter decomposition and stabilisation
Špaldoňová, Alexandra ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee) ; Smrž, Jaroslav (referee)
Slowdown of plant litter decomposition is one of the many ways how to increase the amount of organic matter in soil and thus contribute to both the restoration of organic matter in soil and reduction of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Here we focused on the long-term effect of soil macrofauna on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. In two long-term microcosm experiments, common isopod (Armadillidium vulgare) greatly affected both leaf litter decomposition and organic matter chemistry. Microbial decomposition was lower in excrements than in litter or unconsumed leaf fragments. At the same time, moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of nutrients increased decomposition much more in litter than in the excrements. Chemical analyses revealed preferential loss of polysaccharide carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to aromatic carbon in excrements when compared to litter; the two substrates also differed in lignin quality. Additionally, we observed that phenolics content in leaf litter is considerably affected by both microbial and isopod feeding activities. In the third long-term microcosms experiment, we compared consequence of bioturbation of the epigeic earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) and mechanical mixing of organic matter into soil on carbon...
Interactions of soil fauna and vegetation during sucession on spoil heaps after brown coal mining
Roubíčková, Alena ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Smrž, Jaroslav (referee) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee)
Earlier research on the spontaneous succession on spoil heaps near Sokolov, NW Bohemia, has documented major changes in vegetation during middle successional stages, that correspond with occurence of some groups of soil macrofauna (earthworms and wireworms - Elaterid beetle larvae). We have tested the interactions between these soil animal groups, plants and soil in several experiments: In two laboratory and two field experiments earthworms positively affected growth of late successional plants (Arrhenatherum elatius, Agrostis capillaris, Centaurea jacea, Festuca rubra, Plantago lanceolata, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium spp.), during the laboratory experiments a decrease in soil pH and increase in microbial respiration, oxidable C, total N, and exchangeable P, K, and Ca content was detected in presence of earthworms. In a laboratory experiment earthworms also negatively affected germination of small seeds in comparison with large seeds. Concurrently, earthworm performance is affected by the biotic and abiotic conditions at the site; their biomass increased when kept in pots at sites 28 and 48 years old with high tree coverage and decreased in pots at younger sites. Wireworms negatively affected biomass of Calamagrostis epigejos in both laboratory and field experiment, their reduction in field...
Bioturbation and its role in soil formation
Burešová, Andrea ; Frouz, Jan (advisor) ; Tajovský, Karel (referee)
Bioturbation in degradated soils can improve colonization of habitat by plants and fauna, which positively influence soil properties and improve the soil regeneration. Bad conditions dominate in habitats where bioturbation activity inhibiting this colonization, and soil degradation can be increased and affect the soil erosion. The absence of soil bioturbators is noticeable from soil micromorfology. To compare with stands, where soil bioturbators are present, here we will not find any biostructures and mixing of soil profile is minimal. The result is, alter alia, low amount of soil organic matter leading to higher competition for nutrients among units. In this thesis the main factor influencing present of soil ecosystem engineers, in this case earthworms,is clima. Comparimg soil micromorfology of four habitats placed on climatic gradient from east to west of USA can be inferred, which role play soil bioturbators in first five centimetres of soil. Was determine how soil structure is affected by their activity during three successional phases and which factors influence thein presence or absence. In conclusion, differences between climatic conditions lead to different succession of ecosystem,mainly composition of different species in the community. It leads to variable soil structure characteristic...
Communities of millipedes (.i.Diplopoda./i.) and centipedes (.i.Chilopoda./i.) in changing conditions of montane spruce forests of the Šumava Mountains
Tajovský, Karel
In the nineties of the past century, large climax Norway spruce (.i.Picea abies./i.) areas of the Šumava Mountains were damaged by the bark beetle outbreak. The subsequent decay of spruce growths become the object of interest for management practice, nature protection as well as research activities. While the changes in forest growths under the bark beetle outbreak were well visible, there were no information about the impact of these processes and subsequent management practices used (clear cutting, spontaneous development of dead growths) on soil environments and existing communities of soil organisms. Within the soil zoological research in 1999-2010 near the localities Březník and Studená hora Mt., qualitative and quantitative parameters of millipede and centipede assemblages were studied in undamaged, damaged and dead forest stands, and in differently old clearings. Combination of methods of pitfall trapping and soil sampling served data about the composition and changes of communities of both invertebrate groups.

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