National Repository of Grey Literature 32 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Atherosclerosis risk factors and macrophage polarization in adipose tissue
Králová, Anna ; Poledne, Rudolf (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee) ; Zicha, Josef (referee)
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and the pro-inflammatory state stimulates the process of atherogenesis. Since the 1990s, it has become clear that adipose tissue has not only an endocrine function, but it is also a very important immune organ due to the presence of various immunocytes with high cytokine secretion. Local resident macrophages represent a major component in the development of this inflammation. Due to our inclusion in the unique transplantation program at IKEM, which ensured availability of peroperatively harvested adipose tissue and its subsequent and immediate analysis, we were able to characterize the different subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages and classify macrophages into pro- and anti-inflammatory populations based on the differential expression of surface markers. From subcutaneous (SCAT), perivascular (PVAT), and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue samples from healthy living kidney donors (LKD), we analyzed the macrophage phenotype after obtaining the stromal fraction by flow cytometry. At the beginning of the experiments, we chose the calprotectin molecule as a proinflammatory marker. However, in subsequent experiments described herein, we chose a different route and selected the CD16 receptor to determine the proinflammatory phenotype. This...
Possibilities of influence of cardiovascular risk markers with a diet enriched with amaranth flour
Chmelík, Zdeněk ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Piťha, Jan (referee) ; Vohnout, Branislav (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze 1. lékařská fakulta Abstrakt dizertační práce Možnosti ovlivnění markerů kardiovaskulárního rizika stravou obohacenou amarantovou moukou PharmDr. Zdeněk Chmelík Praha 2022 Abstract (EN) Introduction: Diet suitable for lipid metabolism disorders should not increase the total and LDL cholesterol, and ideally should assist in its lowering. Analysis of literary sources suggest that amaranth can meet these properties. Aim: The execution of literary investigation of the issue and experimental verification of lipid- lowering effect of amaranth flour in laboratory conditions. Methods: 50 (Experiment 1) or 40 (Experiment 2) The mice were divided into five (Experiment 1) or four (Experiment 2) groups fed by control mixture (C), high-energy diet (HED), high- energy diet with amaranth (HED+A) and in Experiment 1, by high-energy diet with amaranth flour and simvastatin (HED+A+S) or only with simvastatin (HED+S), and in Experiment 2 a by high-energy diet with squalene (HED+S). Weight gains were measured and TC, LDL and HDL cholesterol determined. Results: Feeding of HED diets resulted in a statistically significant increase in the TC cholesterol by 81% (Experiment 1) or 125% (Experiment 2), LDL cholesterol of 612% (Experiment 1) or 304% (Experiment 2) and a decrease in HDL cholesterol by 8.4%...
Evaluation of vegetable fats consumption of patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia
Kubecová, Markéta ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Šnejdrlová, Michaela (referee)
The thesis deals with intake of vegetable fats in patients with CVD (Cardiovascular Disease), DM (Diabetes Mellitus) and dyslipidemia. The theoretical part deals with the distribution of lipids, as well as sources ofvarious fatty acids in the diet and their effects on our organism. The next part describes the use of vegetable oils as well as aspects of digestion of fatty acids, their absorption, transport and metabolism. The last chapter of the introduction is dedicated to diseases, in which it is necessary not only to monitor fat intake but, also, choosing those, that can postively impact onthe disease progression. The nutritional (medical) study is made on the basis of a questionnaire survey, which monitors the consumption and use of vegetable fats andfoods containing vegetable fats. Results summarize whether patients are informed and following proper diet regimen and identify mistakes they have been making. Data collection was conducted at the 3rd Department ofInternal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital in Prague. Keywords: fatty acids, nutrition, metabolism, diet in disease, eating habits
Education of Patients with Myocardial Infarction
Frantesová, Lucie Michala ; Pavlíková, Pavla (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee)
The topic of this thesis is "Education of Patients with Myocardial Infarction". The thesis is divided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical part has several chapters in which attention is paid to myocardial infarction, its localization, factors influencing its formation, diagnosis and therapy. Further in the theoretical part I deal with education and the process of education in patients with myocardial infarction. In practical part the chapters describe methodology, hypothesis and the aims of the thesis. Other chapters include graphs and tables depicting the comparison of groups and the results of the research. The results are then analysed further. The aim of this thesis was to find out to which extent the patients take part in an educational programme, and if education influences the change of behaviour. A few hypotheses were set up, e.g. that the patients would choose to be educated; that the educated group would have better results on monitored funs than patients with no education; and that education influences the patients' behaviour. Based on the research, it can be stated, that the hypotheses have not been confirmed. Despite of extensive education of the inspected group during the stay in hospital and during one following year, there was a rise in weight and no significant decline...
Physical exercise in diabetes mellitus 2 type patients
Pelíšková, Pavlína ; Kohlíková, Eva (advisor) ; Vokrouhlický, Lubor (referee) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee)
Problem: Aerobic endurance exercise is traditionally considered the best motoric activity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The most recommended form is continuous training at a defined level of intensity. Interval training is less used despite its proven effectiveness given by the possibility of applying a higher training load. Hypothesis: Long-term individually prescribed physical exercise therapy in Type 2 DM patients treated with diet and oral antidiabetics is demonstrably and objectively beneficial for these patients concerning their health condition, as shown by the metabolic compensation and anthropometric and fitness parameters. Physical exercise therapy described here helps to improve the patients' health condition in short the term and maintain it in the long term. Objective: Our aim is to prove the positive effect of a long-term individually adapted regular physical exercise therapy in type 2 DM patients. Method: The research sample consisted of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (male and female) after termination of insulin therapy and its replacement by oral anti-diabetic drugs. A group of 31 patients treated with oral antidiabetics, diet and existing physical regimen is being compared with a group of 31 patients treated with diet, antidiabetics and defined physical exercise...
The study of new risk factors of the cardiovascular diseases
Eremiášová, Lenka ; Danzig, Vilém (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee) ; Rosolová, Hana (referee)
Bilirubin is a major product of the heme catabolism in the vascular bed with substantial antioxidant properties. These importantly contribute to pathogenesis of diseases associated with increased oxidative stress, including cardiovascular or cancer diseases. In the first part of this PhD project serum bilirubin concentrations were examined in the 1 % representative sample of the general Czech population, together with determination of the prevalence of Gilbert's syndrome. Bilirubin concentrations were determined also within individual polymorphisms of the UGT1A1 gene (OMIM*191740) responsible for bilirubin biotransformation in the liver, including their association with the basic risk factors for atherosclerosis. We also assessed the activity of the standard liver enzymes (representing another significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases) with surprisingly high proportion of subjects with elevated values. Simultaneously, we determined the concentrations of serum bilirubin in a group of patients with an acute coronary syndrome, who manifested with significantly lower concentrations as compared to general population. In the second part of this research project, the relationship between plasma concentrations of bilirubin and individual variants of UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms...
Surgical models of the study of the pro-inflammatory effect of adipose tissue in the development of atherosclerosis
Thieme, Filip ; Froněk, Jiří (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee) ; Broďák, Miloš (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze 1. lékařská fakulta Doktorský studijní program Studijní obor: Experimentální chirurgie MUDr. Filip Thieme Název závěrečné práce Chirurgické modely studia proinflamačního vlivu tukové tkáně v rozvoji aterosklerózy Title Surgical models of the study of the pro-inflammatory effect of adipose tissue in the development of atherosclerosis Typ závěrečné práce Disertační Školitel: doc. MUDr. Jiří Froněk, Ph.D., FRSC Konzultant doc. MUDr. Libor Janoušek, Ph.D. Klinika transplantační chirurgie, IKEM Praha, 2021 Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is a serious inflammatory systemic disease. Surgery mainly addresses its vascular complications. Conversely, surgery may also lead to the development and acceleration of atherosclerosis, e.g., in a living kidney donor. This would especially be the case in a donor who meets internationally recognized donation criteria but suffers from metabolic syndrome. The effort to refine assessments of living kidney donors in terms of eliminating the risk of developing atherosclerosis is a long-term project. Our aim is to determine risk factors for living kidney donors and to prevent long-term complications after donation. Collecting tissue from a living donor involves not oly subcutaneous tissue (SCAT) but also visceral (VAT) and perivascular tissue (PVAT),...
Emerging cardiovascular risk markers in diagnostics and therapy
Tůmová, Eva ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Freiberger, Tomáš (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries with an enormous influence on individual health and significant socioeconomic impact as well. The aim of most physicians in recent decades is to seek the best possible predicative risk factor (RF) (or combination of several RF) which could help to determine the individual risk of developing CVD. This risk stratification can be used to identify the high risk patients and treatment intensification or establishment of early preventive measures. Currently, several RF of atherosclerosis and CVD are commonly used to individualize health care. However, individuals with low levels of these RF suffer of CVD, therefore the effort to find as much as possible specific RF still persists. In recent years, the inflammatory markers, crucial in the atherosclerosis development, raise great expectation In our studies, we focused on investigating the levels of inflammatory parameters in specific groups of patients (obese children and patients with metabolic syndrome) and observed the effect of weight loss following lifestyle changes. Our main concern was lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), oxidized LDL particles (ox-LDL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results demonstrated significantly...

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