National Repository of Grey Literature 436 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants
Šilhánková, Lenka ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This bachelor’s thesis deals with a trending topic – wastewater distribution of pharmaceuticals proven to be toxic to non-target organisms – specifically, the occurrence of beta-blockers, plentifully used in treating hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, is discussed. Members of this group, Atenolol, Acebutolol and Bisoprolol were chosen for closer study. The elimination of these chemicals was observed in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) with different treatment technologies and various number of population equivalents. For said analytes, UHPLC with UV/VIS detection using diode array detector (DAD) method was optimalised. A part of this thesis also deals with optimalization of isolation and concentrating the analytes. Unfortunately, the described method was not suitable for real sample analysis, because in most samples, the limit of quantification or even the limit of detection was not exceeded. It would be best for an analytical method with higher sensitivity, e. g. mass detector, to be used. The data gained in this experiment do not hold any informational value about the effectiveness of WWTP, as the exact amount of Acebutolol in effluent was measured only in one case. Based on the to-date executed analysis, it is impossible to conclude whether the quality of the treated water, concerning the content of aforementioned pharmaceuticals, is in any way ideal.
Flame retardants and their penetration into the terrestrial ecosystem
Chytil, Václav ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This diploma thesis was focused on the analysis of four compounds from brominated flame retardants group, namely pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromocyclododecane, hexabromobenzene and tetrabromobisphenol A. Matrices were represented by four soil samples and four seat of fire samples. In addition, bisphenol A was also determined. First of all, process of extraction of analytes from matrices was optimized. Three different extraction techniques were tested (pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction). Next step was to verify stability of target compounds in strongly acidic conditions and to optimize clean-up of extract by column chromatography. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was chosen as an appropriate analytical method for the determination of brominated flame retardants. Bisphenol A was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). The derivatization of phenolic analytes before their final analytical determination was also essential.
Removing organic contamination from water, using UV radiation.
Venská, Petra ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Repková, Martina (advisor)
This diploma thesis focuses on possibilities of applications of UV radiation to remove pollutants from water. It summarizes sources of UV radiation and list their benefits and properties. The thesis characterizes so called advanced oxidation processes using UV light. Degradation pathways od pyridine and its derivatives especially halogenated pyridines are described. The photodegradability of pyridine and a rate of this reaction in model water is investigated in the experimental part. Also, the effect of concentration and dose of H2O2 is assessed. Gas chromatography was used to determinate concentrations of pyridine in samples.
Evaluation of environmental load by polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Roček, Richard ; Stoupalová, Michaela (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
The target of my diploma thesis is evaluation of soil load by polybrominated diphenylethers. This is the soils, which were affected by fire and comparsion with load by soils, which were not affected by fire. In teoretical part available informations about BDE from various sources are processed. Target of practical part is find the optimal method for determination BDE, verification of her yield a determination of reals samples with using this method. In the end this thesis contains measured results, its interpetation in tables, graphes and evaluation of load by individual congeners. Key is comparsion load of soils, which were affected and which were not affected by fire. BDE are released during the fire and we can decide that soils which were caused by fire should be contaminated more, than soils, which were not caused by fire.
Determination of linear synthetic aromatic compounds in abiotic and biotic matrices
Tulková, Tereza ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Synthetic musk compounds are artificial organic compounds with a smell similar to the odor of a natural musk. The most recently discovered and also the least known group of artificial musks is linear musk compounds. These substances are now often used in cosmetics, personal care products, detergents and various cleaning products. They have leaked into all the major environment components, especially into the hydrosphere. There has been great attention drawn to synthetic musk compounds in the last few years because of their environmental impact. The aim of this thesis is to identify twelve linear musk compounds (linalool, 2-cyclohexylethanol, fresco menthe, citronellol, HSA, isobornyl acetate, arocet, aroflorone, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, lilial, isoamyl salicylate and hexylcinnamic aldehyde) in waste water samples. The samples were taken at three different waste water treatment plants (WWTP) in South Moravian region (WWTP Brno-Modřice, WWTP Luhačovice and WWTP Hodonín). Each of these treatment plants has a different equivalent number of inhabitants. At first, a working method was optimized, then applied on real waste water samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used for the extraction of analytes. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was then used for identification and quantificaton of the studied compounds.
Characterization of the chemical composition of the tar produced in the gasification of biomass
Mahelová, Zora ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
Biomass is a renewable source of energy and represents an acceptable alternative to fosil fuels. Usable methods of energetic use of biomass are combustion and gasification. Main interest is focused on gasification in last years. Gasification is based on conversion of organic material to usable gaseous product called syngas, which can be used as a fuel for energy production. Large amount of tar is formed as a by-product of incineration and gasification of biomass. Tar is composed by various mixture of organic substances, has a negative effect on operating conditions and is a potential threat to environment. Experimental part of this study was focused on analysis of tar obtained by gasification of various kind of biomass. Selected groups of hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds were identified in analysed samples. Individual biomass samples were compared regarding to determined relative content of selected substances. Analysis was done by complete twodimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCxGC/TOF-MS).
Non-traditional halogenderivatives in the environment: Perfluorinated compounds
Kalivoda, Josef ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Čáslavský, Josef (advisor)
This work will be focused on the fate of perfluorinated organic compounds in the environment and on the analytical methods sutable for their determination.
Ecotoxicological evaulation samples from burnt-out area
Pasírbková, Adéla ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
In the case of fires frequently wide range of inhomogeneous material is burnt. A lot of combustion products arise during this event, which may adversely affect the environment. Most often detected compounds are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, sulphane, hydrogen cyanide, nitrous gases and also organic compounds, which show adverse effects for organism. It is possible to identify and quantify most of them by chemical analysis, but their impact on the ecosystem is not predictable on the basis of these results. An effective tool to predict the impact of combustion products on the ecosystem are ecotoxicity tests. In this thesis, the water leachates of samples from fire places were prepared and subjected to ecotoxicological tests. Two alternative test of ecotoxicity on aquatic organisms were used: the first on the organism Thamnocephalus platyurus (ThamnotoxkitFTM) and the second on the organism Daphnia magna (DaphtoxkitFTM). Another testing aquatic organism was Artemia salina. Ecotoxicity was also tested using a standard phytotoxicity tests; white mustard (Sinapis alba) and white onion (Allium cepa) root growth inhibition tests and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor) growth inhibition test. On the basis of obtained ecotoxicological values LC (EC, IC)50 the impact of matrices from fire places on the ecosystem was evaulated.
Influence of Storage Conditions on Metabolic Profile of Apples
Duroňová, Kateřina ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The goal of presented dissertation has been complex analysis of changes in content of fatty acids, enzymatic and low-molecular antioxidants in apples and related evaluation of perception of originators of storage diseases for apples stored in various conditions. Main part of the work has been dedicated to study of the impact of storage of apples in modified atmosphere with reduced amount of oxygen and in reference “normal” atmosphere for six months. Next part of the work has been dedicated to study how apple storage in common, consumer affordable, conditions (storage in a cellar, in a refrigerator, and in room temperature) affects content of low-molecular antioxidants. For testing has been selected apple kinds Jonagored, Golden Delicious, Idared, Šampion, and Granny Smith. Within the scope of this work has been optimized the method for determination of fatty acids in plant material with higher content of wax. The measured values imply the apples are valuable source of many important nutrition substances like vitamins, provitamins and antioxidants. During the storage process these substances exhibit considerable protective function. Long-term storage, mainly in the atmosphere with reduced amount of oxygen (FAN), enables preservation of majority of these important nutrition substances depending on the kind of apple and conditions of storage. Freezing process is conservative to apples (mainly in the presence of protective substances), while in the process of drying the values of all monitored antioxidants decrease depending on temperature and conditions of drying. Upon the choice of the storage method one must consider nutrition, sensoric characteristic and consumer demands.
Analysis of Organic Markers for Identification of Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols
Křůmal, Kamil ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Smolík,, Jiří (referee) ; Večeřa, Zbyněk (advisor)
In this work the organic markers that serve for identification of sources of aerosols are monitored. Theoretic part deals with detailed survey of organic markers emitted from the most significant sources of atmospheric aerosols (biomass combustion, combustion of fossil fuels and traffic) as well as with sampling of aerosols and analysis of organic markers by analytical techniques. Monosaccharide anhydrides (emissions from biomass combustion) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (emissions from traffic and incomplete combustion) were observed especially. Hopanes and steranes (traffic, coal combustion) and fatty acids (cooking) were next groups of monitored organic markers. Markers were studied mainly in size fraction PM1 because this fraction of aerosols is the most harmful to human health. Aerosols were sampled in two seasons (winter and summer) in two towns in 2009. Higher concentrations of aerosols and organic compounds were found in winter season, which resulted from increased combustion of biomass, coal and other organic material while traffic was the most significant source of aerosols in summer.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 436 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
12 Vavrová, Michaela
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3 VÁVROVÁ, Marie
7 VÁVROVÁ, Martina
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1 VÁVROVÁ, Michala
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