National Repository of Grey Literature 204 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Study of the use of crops for phytoremediation of contaminated soil by pharmaceuticals
Hamplová, Marie ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Mravcová, Ludmila (advisor)
Pharmaceuticals leaking into the environment from wastewater and livestock farms raise concerns about the impact on the ecosystem and human health. Residues of pharmaceuticals present in soil are subject to a number of biotic and abiotic processes, including uptake, translocation and accumulation by plants. The ability of plants to accumulate or degrade pharmaceuticals could have potential applications in the process of 'phytoremediation', where plants and their associated micro-organisms are used to stabilise, degrade or remove contaminants from the environment. In the framework of this thesis, experiments on phytoremediation of drug-contaminated soil by the cover crop oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Oleiformis) under controlled conditions were conducted. Soil samples were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, plant samples by QuEChERS method and the final analysis of drugs was performed by UPLC-MS/MS. Oilseed radish produced a large amount of aboveground biomass compared to the other two crops and the presence of drugs had no negative effect on its growth. However, the determined levels of each drug in the soil and in the crop showed insufficient effectiveness of phytoremediation. The accumulation of drugs by the crop was low except for residues of the antidepressant venlafaxine. Therefore, according to these results, oilseed radish is not a suitable crop for phytoremediation of drug-contaminated soil. Experiments were also carried out with the root vegetable radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Sativus) and carrot (Daucus carota L.) to assess the risk to human health associated with the accumulation of drugs in vegetable roots. The risk has not been demonstrated in terms of the amount of established drugs in the roots. Only the metabolite clofibric acid accumulated to a higher extent and the antibiotic trimethoprim was the most translocated to the aerial parts of the crop. The rate of uptake and translocation of drugs by the plant depended on many factors, as their content varied considerably between drug groups and between parts and types of crops.
Influence of plasma activated water on seed germination and quality of corn
Kovařík, Martin ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
The bachelor's thesis deals with the effect of plasma-activated water on corn germination. After water comes into contact with plasma, the water changes its chemical composition and thus, it acquires new properties that can be used in agriculture. The theoretical part is divided into two basic parts. At the beginning of the first part, plasma is briefly characterized, and then this part deals with plasma-activated water, its formation, physical and chemical properties, and at the end of this part, its use. The second part of the theoretical part is devoted to the germination of plants, external influences affecting germination and statistical evaluation of germination. At the end of the theoretical part, this thesis deals with the ecotoxicity of plants. The content of the experimental part was the preparation of PAW, its subsequent application to corn seeds and the study of its effect on germination and plant quality. PAW was created from distilled or tap water using three different plasma systems and the effect of each PAW on the seeds was compared with that of each control sample. The obtained results indicate a positive effect of PAW on seed germination, but the final hypothesis would require more extensive experiments in different environments, especially in soil.
Introduction of enzymatic ecotoxicity tests and their use in assessing the quality of the soil ecosystem
Marcinko, Juraj ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Assessment of soil quality is possible through a variety of approaches, including the use of ecotoxicological principles, at the organismal or sub-organismal level. It is for this reason that one of the objectives of this thesis was the introduction and implementation of selected enzymatic assays, specifically the evaluation of the enzymatic activities of three enzymes that can represent the microbial activity of the soil. For these purposes, a short-term test was carried out with Lactuca sativa, where pharmacological substances were selected as representatives of xenobiotics with a possible influence on microbial activity in soil and with a potential phytotoxic effect on higher plants. The results obtained indicate a possible inhibitory effect of pharmacological substances on enzymatic activity in soil. In the case of phytotoxicity of pharmacological substances, a significant effect was observed at the organismal level, which was manifested by root elongation. The effect at the sub-organism level was significantly manifested by a disturbance in the ratio of photosynthetic pigment content.
Assessment of the state of the environment with regard to the content of risk elements in fish bodies
Jonášová, Simona ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
The diploma thesis deals with the study of the content of potentially toxic elements in fish bodies in the Jihlava River. The biological samples were first transferred into solutions by microwave digestion. Afterwards, the potentially toxic elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn in muscle, heart, liver, genital organs, gills and intestine were determined by AAS. A total of 20 fish samples were analysed. In european chub and common bream, the concentrations of elements decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Hg > Pb > Cd. In rainbow trout, common nase, common carp, european perch and common roach, element concentrations decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Hg > Cd > Pb. In northern pike the following decreasing trend was found: Zn > Cu > Hg > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The assessment of the condition of the watercourse was made according to the individuals that were assumed to have been present in the Jihlava River for more than 1 year. According to these fish species, the contamination of the aquatic environment with elements Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni was demonstrated. All fish samples except sample 8 (perch) were assessed as suitable for consumption.
Study of the content of risk elements in river sediments of the Váh River
Držíková, Klára ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Komendová, Renata (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of selected heavy metals in the river sediment of the Váh River. The elements were selected based on their relatively frequent occurrence and adverse effects on humans, fauna, and flora. Also due to their ability of good accumulation and persistence in sediments. The selected elements have a chalcophile character, which plays a significant role in the occurrence of the elements at the sampling sites. The analysis of the collected sediment samples was carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The highest concentration of zinc (386.58 mg/kg), followed by copper (57.67 mg/kg), lead (42.24 mg/kg), and the lowest concentration of mercury (0.332 mg/kg) was measured in the sediments. Sediments are used in agriculture and forestry to improve soil properties. Their application to soils is regulated by Slovak legislation, which sets limit values for risk elements in the concerned sediment and soil. These established limits were not exceeded in any of the sediment samples.
Study of chemical processes initiated by electrical discharge in liquids
Možíšová, Aneta ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This Bachelor´s thesis in the first part describes the process of ignition of the plasma discharge in water solutions, the generation of the particles that are generated during the discharge and their subsequent analysis by appropriate analytical methods. The second part focuses on specific cases of the use of the plasma discharge in the environment of selected electrolyte, phosphates were selected for individual experiments and for the comparison of sodium chloride. Phosphates were chosen mainly because of their stable pH as a possible benefit in discharge. The aim is to obtain the most ideal environment for the ignition of the plasma discharge and to optimize the method, which could subsequently be used for medical purposes, especially when sterilizing tools
Determination of nitrates in vegetables by capillary izotachophoresis
Jančová, Nikola ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Řezáčová, Veronika (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with determination of nitrates in vegetables employing the capillary isotachophoresis technique. The literature review is devoted to occurrence of nitrates in vegetables, their health risks, the influence of food processing onto nitrate content, commonly used methods of determination as well as the capillary isotachophoresis and its practical application. Experimental part focuses on the application of capillary isotachophoresis for determination of nitrate content in vegetables obtained from conventional agriculture and organic farming.
Evaluation of the effects of biodegradable microplastics on biota of freshwater ecosystem via ecotoxicity tests
Procházková, Petra ; Maršálek,, Blahoslav (referee) ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Microplastics, which are ubiquitous contaminants of freshwater ecosystems, have raised concerns regarding their potential impact on the environment. For this reason, there is an effort to replace conventional plastics with biodegradable alternatives that can easily degrade in the environment. However, the process of biodegradation of these materials requires specific conditions, such as temperature, humidity, pH, and the presence of microorganisms, which are not always met adequately. Consequently, they may fragment and form biodegradable microplastics that can affect the environment similarly to conventional microplastics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of microplastics of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) microplastics on freshwater organisms, specifically the alga Desmodesmus subspicatus, the plant Lemna minor and the crustacean Daphnia magna. Additionally, we aimed to develop a suitable analytical method for the direct detection of microplastics in the body of D. magna. Although the observed effects were not always significant, they highlighted certain secondary problems that may arise due to the presence of biodegradable microplastics in the environment These issues could be related to biodegradability and the formation of biofilm on the surface of biodegradable microplastics, leading to subsequent nutrient depletion in the surrounding environment. Therefore, the use of biodegradable plastics as a substitute for conventional materials must be approached critically.
Ecotoxicological evaulation samples from burnt-out area
Pasírbková, Adéla ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
In the case of fires frequently wide range of inhomogeneous material is burnt. A lot of combustion products arise during this event, which may adversely affect the environment. Most often detected compounds are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, sulphane, hydrogen cyanide, nitrous gases and also organic compounds, which show adverse effects for organism. It is possible to identify and quantify most of them by chemical analysis, but their impact on the ecosystem is not predictable on the basis of these results. An effective tool to predict the impact of combustion products on the ecosystem are ecotoxicity tests. In this thesis, the water leachates of samples from fire places were prepared and subjected to ecotoxicological tests. Two alternative test of ecotoxicity on aquatic organisms were used: the first on the organism Thamnocephalus platyurus (ThamnotoxkitFTM) and the second on the organism Daphnia magna (DaphtoxkitFTM). Another testing aquatic organism was Artemia salina. Ecotoxicity was also tested using a standard phytotoxicity tests; white mustard (Sinapis alba) and white onion (Allium cepa) root growth inhibition tests and lesser duckweed (Lemna minor) growth inhibition test. On the basis of obtained ecotoxicological values LC (EC, IC)50 the impact of matrices from fire places on the ecosystem was evaulated.
Study on the influence of plasma activated water on seed germination
Vozár, Tomáš ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with study on the influence of plasma activated water on wheat seed germination. After interaction with the plasma, the water changes its composition and obtain new properties that are useful in agriculture. The theoretical part is divided into two parts. The first part of the theory is dealing with basic knowledge about plasma, its properties, and possibilities of plasma generation in laboratory conditions. In the second part, the work deals with plasma activated water – PAW. The preparation of plasma activated water is described in details as well as its physical-chemical properties and composition with respect to the PAW possible applications. The aim of the experimental part of this work was to prepare plasma activated water in three different plasma systems and apply it on wheat seeds. These three ways of activation used direct and indirect interaction of plasma with water surface. After the seeds were germinated, the influence of plasma activated water on seed germination and quality of crops was observed and compared to control samples. The influence of different ways of water activation was also evaluated. Results show positive effects of plasma activated water on the seed germination and it also increased the quality of crops. Next steps in this research should be the transfer of this experiment from the laboratory scale on the Petri dish to the pot experiments in soil.

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