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Use of some molecular techniques to metabolic characterization of industrially significant yeasts
Kostovová, Iveta ; Brázda, Václav (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
Karotenoidy, ergosterol a mastné kyseliny jsou velmi žádané látky využívané v krmivářském, potravinářském a kosmetickém průmyslu. Konvenční zdroje mastných kyselin a karotenoidů jsou závislé na sezónních podmínkách, geografické poloze a na dostupnosti zemědělské půdy, což znesnadňuje pokrýt jejich neustále se zvyšující spotřebu. Velmi slibným řešením je mikrobiální produkce výše uvedených látek pomocí karotenogenních kvasinek, které jsou schopny simultánně produkovat karotenoidy, mastné kyseliny i ergosterol. Předložená disertační práce je zaměřená na molekulární a metabolickou charakterizaci karotenogenních kvasinek a na jejich potenciál pro průmyslové aplikace. Proto první experimentální části práce jsou zaměřeny na kvasinky druhu R. mucilaginosa a R. toruloides, jejich produkční vlastnosti, vliv nutričního stresu a různých zdrojů uhlíku, jakými byly xylóza a glycerol. Kromě podrobné charakterizace jejich produkčních vlastností, byly tyto kmeny také charakterizovány molekulárními metodami, zahrnující sekvenční analýzu ITS1, ITS2 a D1/2 ribozomálního operonu a analýzu mini a mikrosatelitních sekvencí M13 a GTG5. Druh R. toruloides je známý jako vynikající producent mastných kyselin, a proto se v poslední době stal cílovou karotenogenní kvasinkou pro vývoj nástrojů pro jeho genetickou manipulaci. V této práci byly úspěšně připraveny geneticky modifikované klony kmene R. toruloides, nesoucí nadměrně exprimované geny pro diacylglycerol acyltransferázu (DGA1) a glycerol-3-fosfát dehydrogenázu (GPD1). Produkce mastných kyselin u modifikovaných klonů nebyla ve srovnání s původním kmenem vyšší. Proto byla další část práce zaměřená na přípravu nadprodukčních mutantních kmenů připravených náhodnou mutagenezí. Kombinace limitace dusíkem a inhibice produkce karotenoidů vedla k úspěšné selekci robustních mutantních kmenů s nadprodukcí karotenoidů vykazující rezistenci vůči difenylaminu. Poslední část práce se zabývá produkčními vlastnostmi méně známých druhů karotenogenních kvasinek náležící do řádů Sporidiobolales a Cystofilobasidales, ve srovnání s relativně dobře prostudovanými karotenogenními druhy R. toruloides a P.rhodozyma. V této studii byly nejlešími producenty mastných kyselin kmeny S.metaroseus CCY 19-6-20 a C. macerans CCY 10-01-02. Nejlepší producent karotenoidů, kmen R. mucilaginosa CCY 19-04-06, navíc produkoval lykopen, který představoval více než 80 % celkového množství karotenoidů produkovaných tímto kmenem.
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOPOLYMER-BASED NANOPARTICLES AND NANOFIBERS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN FOOD AND COSMETICS
Kundrát, Vojtěch ; Vilčáková, Jarmila (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The presented dissertation thesis deals with the polymer polyhydroxybutyrate and other biopolymers as a basic building block for the construction of micro- and nanoscopic structures and materials used in food and cosmetics. In the theoretical part, current literary review is prepared to introduce the basics of this application field. The practical part of the work is composed of three blocks developed during the doctoral study. In the first and most important part are summarized comments to the academic and patent outputs, where among the academic ones it is possible to find two peer-reviewed articles dealing with the electrostatic and wet spinning of PHB and properties of prepared materials. The patent outputs consist of several accepted and applied projects, which summarize results on both PHB spinning methods, but also on general approaches enabling the processing of PHB into forms enabling many applications in food and cosmetics. Second part was focused on the patented composition of the UV protection cream based on the prepared nanoscopic and micro- morphologies of PHB. The third block summarizes results focused predominantly on the electrostatic spinning of PHB and other biopolymers. Finally, a short chapter containing a brief description of projects that were in a way related to the dissertation topic, but rather practical development work in Central Tanzania and West Africa, which draw on knowledge and contacts gained during studies at FCH BUT Brno.
The factors influencing sensory quality of processed cheese analogues
Sůkalová, Kateřina ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Buňka,, František (advisor)
The presented thesis deals with the monitoring sensory quality of processed cheese analogues, focusing mainly on the taste (flavour) and related content of volatile (aroma active) substances. Model samples of analogues were produced by a standard procedure at Tomas Bata University in Zlín. The experimental part was divided into two experiments, which differed in the composition of model samples of analogues. In the first experiment, the traditional fat (butter) was completely replaced by selected vegetable fats (palm, coconut, mixed), in the second experiment only a part (1% w/w - expressed on the total weight of the sample) of butter was replaced by vegetable oils (apricot, flax seed, currant, grape seed). Solid phase microextraction in conjunction with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was used to determine volatiles. Methods based on valid international standards were used to evaluate the sensory quality of samples, focusing mainly on flavor, namely evaluation using scales (ISO 4121), profile test (EN ISO 13299) and ranking test (ISO 8587). The aim of the work was to assess the effect of the addition of various vegetable fats/oils on the above parameters, at the same time their changes were monitored during 6 months of storage (at 6 ° C). The results showed that the vegetable oil used affects both the sensory quality and the content and composition of volatile substances of analogues. Significant differences between samples were mainly in taste, aroma and overall acceptability. The decreasing overall acceptability of the samples can be expressed in experiment I by the order: product with butter coconut palm mixed fat; in the case of experiment II: product with butter apricot = flax = grape currant oil. Mixed fat, currant and grape seed oil proved to be unsuitable for the production of analogues, on the contrary, analogues with coconut fat and apricot oil were evaluated best. Based on the results of sensory analyses, it was shown that the samples maintain a good sensory quality min. for 3 months while maintaining a low storage temperature ( 6 ° C). An analogue with coconut fat, whose taste, aroma and acceptability were rated as very good, and apricot oil, whose taste, aroma and acceptability were even rated as excellent, could enrich the food offer on the market.
Controlled production of lipids and lipidic substances by selected yeasts and microalgae
Szotkowski, Martin ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Huelva, Ines Garbayo Nores, University (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
Karotenoidy jsou přírodní pigmenty vyskytující se v mikroorganismech jako jsou řasy, kvasinky a sinice. Představují nejrozšířenější skupinu antioxidantů s významným biologickým účinkem. V současnosti vzrůstá zájem o karotenoidy vzhledem k jejich příznivým vlivům na lidské zdraví. Chlorofyly jsou zelená fotosyntetická barviva, která nacházejí uplatnění v potravinářství jako intenzivní zelená barviva. Koenzym Q je znám svým pozitivním vlivem pro správnou funkci řady orgánů v lidském těle. Ergosterol je nedílnou součástí membrán kvasinek a hub. Je to provitamin D2, který je důležitou součástí imunitního systému. Mikrobiální lipidy, nebo také ‚‚Single cell oils‘‘ jsou charakteristické vysokým obsahem zdraví prospěšných nenasycených mastných kyselin, které lze využít ve farmacii či kosmetice. Mikrobiální lipidy jsou dále studovány jako alternativa pro výrobu biopaliv. Dizertační práce byla zaměřena na studium a možnosti optimalizace produkce lipidů a lipidických látek vybranými kmeny karotenogenních kvasinek, mikrořas a sinic. V rámci práce byly testované kvasinky rodu Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cystofilobasidium a Sporidiobolus podrobené kultivacím na sérií médií s různými C/N poměry v rozsahu 13 až 100, obsahujících upravené odpadní substráty z potravinářského průmyslu. Vybrané kmeny byly poté kultivovány v bioreaktorech v médiu obsahujícím kombinaci odpadních substrátů. Kultivace mikrořas rodu Desmodesmus, Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Coccomyxa, Chlamydomonas, Botryococcus se zabývaly optimalizací jednotlivých komponent média a aplikací různých stresů s cílem navýšení produkce studovaných metabolitů. V rámci experimentů s extrémofilní mikrořasou Coccomyxa byly provedeny pilotní velkoobjemové kultivace v otevřených nádržích. V závěrečné části byl provedeny pilotní screeningové a velkoobjemové bioreaktorové experimenty zaměřené na možnosti kokultivace karotenogenních kvasinek a mikrořas. Testované kmeny kvasinek byly s rozdílnou úspěšností schopny utilizovat média obsahující hydrolyzované odpadní substráty. Nejlepším kmenem byl Sporidiobolus pararoseus, který na médiích dosahoval nejvyšších produkcí biomasy i sledovaných metabolitů. Z testovaných odpadních substrátů byla nejlepší kombinace odpadního fritovacího oleje a hydrolyzátu kávové sedliny. Úspěšná optimalizace složení hlavních komponent minerálního média vedla k zvýšené produkci studovaných metabolitů. Největší vliv měl optimální poměr P/N a aplikace oxidačního stresu. Nejlepších výsledků dosáhly mikrořasy rodu Desmodesmus a Scenedesmus. Velkoobjemové kultivace Coccomyxy onubensis potvrdily rezistenci kultury proti kontaminaci vnějšími vlivy a schopnost růstu za vysoké teploty a intenzity světelného záření. Kokultivační experimenty potvrdily schopnost symbiotického růstu kvasinek a mikrořas. Nejlepších výsledků dosahovaly všechny testované kvasinky s mikrořasami rodu Demsodesmus a Scenedesmus a v menší míře i rodu Coccomyxa.
PRODUCTION OF BETA-GLUCANS AND OTHER POLYSACCHARIDES BY YEAST AND MICROALGAE
Byrtusová, Dana ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Kovalčík, Adriána (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
Beta-glukany jsou polysacharidy složeny z monomerů D-glukózy. V dnešní době se -glukany těší zvýšené pozornosti zejména kvůli imunomodulační aktivitě a využitelnosti ve farmaceutickém a potravinařském průmyslu. Saccharomyces cerevisiae je dodnes jediným kvasinkovým zdrojem požívaným v biotechnologické produkci. Avšak některé kvasinky z oddělení Basidiomycetes, které jsou schopny produkce lipidů a karotenoidů, mohou být využity rovněž jako alternativní zdroj -glukanů. Dizertační práce se zabývá možností a optimalizací produkce -glukanů a dalších mikrobiálních sacharidů u karotenogenních kvasinek a mikrořas. Testovány byli zástupci rodů Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, Cystofilobasidium a Dioshegia. Z nekarotenogenních kvasinek byly do screeningu zařazeny kvasinky rodu Metschnikowia, askomycetní kvasinky a z mikrořas zástupci zelených a červených řas. Experimentální část cílí rovněž na možnosti koprodukce dalších metabolitů, jako jsou lipidy, pigmenty a extracelulární polymery. První část experimentu se zabývá vlivem čtyř C/N poměrů (10:1, 40:1, 70:1 a 100:1) na produkci biomasy, -glukanů, karotenoidů a lipidů. Ze všech testovaných kmenů, S. cerevisiae CCY 21-4-102, C. infirmominiatum CCY 17-18-4, P. rhodozyma CCY 77-1-1 a R. kratochvilovae CCY 20-2-26 vykazovaly nejvyšší produkci -glukanů a byly proto vybrány k podrobnější optimalizaci, zejména osmotického stresu, teploty a zdroje dusíku v kultivačním médiu. Dodatečně, kmen R. kratochvilovae CCY 20-2-26 je schopný produkce extracelulárních glykolipidů a S. pararoseus CCY 19-9-6 extracelulárních polysacharidů. Následně bylo stanoveno množství -glukanů u dalších dvanácti kmenů S. cerevisiae a rovněž možnost produkce polysacharidů u mikrořas.
Recent results on the problem of motion of viscous fluid around a rotating rigid body
Deuring, P. ; Kračmar, Stanislav ; Nečasová, Šárka
We consider the linearized incompressible flow around rotating and translating body in the exterior domain R³D‾, where D⊂R³ is open and bounded, with Lipschitz boundary. We derive the pointwise estimates for the pressure. Further, we consider the linearized problem in a truncation domain DR:=BRD‾ of the exterior domain R³D‾ under certain artificial boundary conditions on the truncating boundary ∂BR, and then compare this solution with the solution in the exterior domain R³D‾ to get the truncation error estimate.
Metabolism of Bacterial Cells and the Effect of Stress on Biosynthesis of PHA
Kučera, Dan ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Ondrejovič,, Miroslav (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This thesis deals with the study of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis as a microbial product with the potential to replace current conventional plastics made from petroleum. The dissertation thesis is elaborated in the form of a discussed set of already published publications, which are then part of the thesis in the form of appendices. The work builds on relatively extensive knowledge in the field of polyhydroxyalkanoate production and brings new facts and possible strategies. Various possibilities of analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoates using modern methods were tested in this work, which brings especially speed, which can be crucial in real-time evaluation of production biotechnological process. Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very promising technique for rapid quantification of PHA. Furthermore, the work deals with valorisation of waste of food and agricultural origin. Emphasis is placed on methods of detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates. In this context, adsorption of inhibitors to lignin was first used as an alternative to other detoxification techniques. Due to detoxification, selected production strains Burkholederia cepacia and B. sacchari were able to utilize softwood hydrolyzate for PHA production. In the next part of the work was also tested the possibility of using chicken feathers as a complex source of nitrogen. Evolutionary engineering was also used as a possible strategy to eliminate the inhibitory effect of levulic acid as a microbial inhibitor that results from the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Adaptation experiments were used to develop strains exhibiting higher resistance to levulic acid and the ability to accumulate a higher 3HV copolymer from the original wild-type C. necator strain. Another promising approach tested in the work was the use of extremophilic microbial strain, which leads to a reduction in the cost of biotechnological production. Selected Halomonas species have shown high potential as halophilic PHA producers. The final part of the thesis was devoted to the selection of the production strain with regard to the properties of the resulting PHA. The Cupriavidus malaysiensis strain was selected to produce a P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) terpolymer which revealed significant differences in material properties over P3HB.
Use of Molecular Biology Techniques for Identification and Analysis of Probiotic Bacteria
Konečná, Jana ; Doškař, Jiří (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an important step in the molecular diagnostics of microorganisms. A high quality of isolated DNA is necessary for DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The conventional DNA isolation using phenol-chloroform extraction and DNA precipitation in ethanol is time-consuming and requires the use of toxic phenol. Alternative method of DNA isolation is use of commercially available kits which, however, are expensive and their efficiency is low. Magnetic separation techniques using magnetic solid particles are one of modern methods to speed up the nucleic acids isolation. The aim of this work was to use two different types of magnetic particles for solid-phase DNA extraction. Magnetic microparticles P(HEMA – co – GMA) containing –NH2 group and nanoparticles PLL, whitch contains polylysine. The amounts of DNA in separation mixtures were measured using ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV). The first experimental conditions were tested on chicken erythrocytes DNA. Phosphate buffer (pH 7, 7.6 and 8) was used for adsorption of DNA on magnetic particles. It was shown that approximately almost one half of DNA was adsorbed on the particles. The elution conditions of DNA were also optimized. Secondly, bacterial DNA was tested. After optimalization, the developed method was used for DNA isolation from real food supplements. This DNA eluted from the particles was in PCR ready quality. High resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis is a simple, low-cost method for amplicon discrimination and easy connection with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this thesis, we report rapid species identification of strains belonging to the Lactobacillus group using HRM-PCR. Three different DNA isolation methods were used in this work: phenol extraction, separation using magnetic particles and commercial kit. Ten sets of targeted gene fragments primers (LAC1 – LAC2, LAC2 – LAC4, P1V1 – P2V1, Gro F – Gro R, 3BA-338f – Primer 1, V1F – V1R, CHAU - V3F – CHAU - V3R, CHAU - V6F – CHAU - V6R, poxcDNAFw – poxPromRVC, poxcDNAFw – poxPromRVT) were tested for amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Use of GroF/R and LAC2/4 primers pairs successfully identify strains belong to the Lactobacillus group. The variance between used extraction methods for evidence of HRM curves was found.
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF SOME BIOPOLYMERS, NANOPARTICLES AND NANOFIBRES FOR COSMETICS AND FOOD
Bokrová, Jitka ; Pekař, Miloslav (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The presented doctoral thesis is focused on preparation of nanoparticles and nanofibers with natural active ingredient and testing their biological effects. Modern types of application forms were prepared from biomaterials based on one or more natural polymers. Chitosan particles were prepared from cross-linked polymer using ultrasonication. A mixture of soy lecithin and cholesterol was used for preparation of liposomes. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate was used for preparation of combined liposomes, too. All liposome particles were prepared by ultrasonication. Nanofibers were obtained from polyhydroxybutyrate using electrospinning. Mixtures of low-molecular antioxidants obtained by extraction from natural sources were used as active ingredients. Different types of teas, barks, herbs, spices, fruits and vegetables were selected as sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and total antioxidant activity of extracts were determined using spectrophotometrical methods. Obtained natural extracts were subsequently used for encapsulation. Prepared application forms were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. Particle size was monitored by dynamic light scattering. Colloidal stability of particles in suspension was determined using zeta potential. Spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the efficiency of encapsulation of active compounds into particles. The morphology of the new type of combined PHB liposomes was monitored by electron microscopy. Chromatography was used for quantification of individual components of particles. Morphology of nanofibers and incorporation of active agent into their structure were monitored using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Afterwards, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of preparations were evaluated. It was found that the most suitable types of extracts for liposome preparation are aqueous and lipid extracts of natural antioxidants. Prepared particles showed excellent stability and good encapsulation efficiency. The study confirmed that incorporation of polydroxybutyrate into liposome structure does not reduce neither the colloidal stability of the particle, nor the efficiency of encapsulation process. Antimicrobial and antimycotic effect of preparations against model microorganisms Micrococcus lutues, Serratia marcescens and Candida glabrata was detected. It was found that process of encapsulation increases the inhibitory effect of natural extracts of antioxidants. The safety of preparations was assessed using two human cell cultures: epidermal keratinocytes and HaCaT cell line. Assays of cell viability and plasma membrane integrity were used to determine cytotoxicity of preparations. Low toxicity of liposome particles was confirmed by a series of cytotoxic tests. Obtained data showed that association of phospholipid with PHB polymer does not cause a significant increase in cytotoxicity in human skin cells. Genotoxicity testing on model procaryotic organism confirmed zero genotoxic potential of preparations. The new type of combined particles and polymeric fibers cant thus be used as a carrier for active ingredients, complex natural extracts, antimicrobial agents and many others.
UTILIZATION OF FOOD PROCESSING WASTE FOR LACTIC ACID AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION
Hudečková, Helena ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Márová, Ivana (advisor)
The doctoral thesis is focused on the microbial production of lactic acid and ethanol using food processing waste as substrate. Coffee processing waste (spent coffee grounds), wine production waste (grape pomace) and orange processing waste (orange peel) were chosen as substrates for experiments. The theoretical part is dedicated to summarizing current knowledge about waste from food production and possibilities of its processing. It also deals with selected metabolites (lactic acid, ethanol) to which these wastes can be used. Part of the experiments was focused on the characterization and optimization of hydrolysis to maximize the amount of fermentable saccharides. Different combinations of chemical, physical and enzymatic hydrolysis of selected substrates have been tested. Subsequently, a suitable strain for lactic acid and ethanol production was searched for. In the case of lactic acid production, 7 bacterial strains were selected (Lactobacillus casei CCM 4798, Bacillus coagulans CCM 2013, Bacillus coagulans CCM 2658, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1825T, Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus CCM 7190, Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 7039T, Streptococcus thermophilus CCM 4757). These strains were first cultivated on the synthetic media containing different kind of saccharides. Afterward, the cultivation on the waste biomass hydrolysates were tested. In the case of ethanol production, 2 yeast strains kmeny (S. cerevisiae CNCTC 6646 a S. cerevisiae CNCTC 6651) were cultivated on hydrolysates of individual waste substrates. Subsequently, the experiments focused on the production of lactic acid and ethanol on hydrolysates of waste biomass in bioreactor were done. The last part of this doctoral thesis deals with the microaerobic pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to increase the production of organic acids during the acetogenic phase of anaerobic digestion.

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2 Kračmar, S.
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