National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The development of depressive symptomatology, burnout and lifestyle in the Czech population - in years 2014-2020
Vňuková, Martina ; Ptáček, Radek (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Fischer, Slavomil (referee)
Introduction It is clear from the literature that depressive disorder is closely related to lifestyle, however the relationship between burnout and lifestyle remains unclear. The aim of this study was to present a comprehensive overview of depressive symptoms, burnout and lifestyle over the years. Furthermore, this study looks at the relationship between burnout, depressive symptomatology and lifestyle and seeks to clarify the extent to which burnout can be explained by these variables. Methods Data collection took place in three waves. The first data collection was in 2014 (October/November), the second in 2017 (March) and the third in 2020 (March). The STEM/MARK agency conducted the data collection and collected answers from a representative sample of respondents using the CAWI method - computer-assisted questioning. These respondents were selected from the European National Panel. Because the target group was adults (18-65 years), an online survey was chosen. Internet penetration in this target population is sufficient and it was not necessary to use a combination of methodologies. Results All 3 data collections identically show that for the model explaining burnout statistically significant variables are: age, depression and fatigue during the day. Other variables related to healthy lifestyles...
Analytical Rumination Hypothesis Testing: Depression as a Functional Adaptation.
Ševčíková, Marcela ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
Next to the traditional medical concept of depression, there is an expert opinion suggesting that depression is a functional adaptation to adversity. In the theoretical part of the thesis, we present the adaptive hypothesis of depression, the Analytical-Rumination Hypothesis (ARH). According to ARH, depression has evolved as an adaptive response to the complex problems. Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, social isolation, and psychomotor retardation, may help individuals to undisturbedly analyze their personal problems in a process called analytical rumination. The limited ability to focus on an external problem, e.g. on neuropsychological tests, is a by-product of analytical rumination. The aim of the dissertation thesis is to test the ARH. In the practical part, we present five studies using both quantitative and qualitative approaches, cross-sectional and longitudinal design, and samples with different statuses (clinical and non-clinical). The results of Study 1 confirm that depression is a response to a complex problem. Using a qualitative methodology, Study 2 examined the form of rumination and detected the presence of adaptive rumination in depressed individuals (causal analysis, analysis of the aspects of the problem and problem-solving analysis). The results of cross-sectional Study 3...
Burnout syndrome in Health Care Professionals.
Riethof, Norbert ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Světlák, Miroslav (referee) ; Pauknerová, Daniela (referee)
N. Riethof - Burnout syndrome in Health Care Professionals ABSTRACT Burnout syndrome is a state of total exhaustion related to work condi- tions and prolonged stress. While initial phases of burnout resemble stress symptoms, final phases of burnout are characterized by feelings of hopelessness, loss of meaning and desperation that have similar qual- ities as depression as well as existential vacuum described by Frankl in his logotherapy. In addition, the burnout syndrome involves stages in which people detach from their emotions and feelings as a defense mechanism against stress and have decreased ability to experience their own feelings and emotional states. Burnout usually begins with feelings of enthusiasm and idealized visualizations and it is in contrast with sub- sequent disillusionment, disappointment experienced later. After decades of burnout research, there is still a need for better def- inition of this condition including more precise diagnostic criteria and internationally recognized measurement tools, especially within health care system where the risks of unrecognized and untreated burnout are high. This study is focused on examination of potential causes of burn- out and relationships of burnout symptoms with certain personality traits, defense mechanisms and coping reactions including...
Adult ADHD Symptomatology and Lifestyles in the Czech Population.
Weissenberger, Simone ; Ptáček, Radek (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Fischer, Slavomil (referee)
ADHD is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that is mostly seen in childhood and that can also manifest or carry on into adulthood. It is of crucial importance for clinicians to be aware of the adult version of ADHD so that they can adequately recognize and treat those who are ailed by the condition. It is also important to raise awareness of the condition to clinicians in Czech Republic, as our study clearly shows that there are a fair amount of adults who are living with strong symptoms. We conducted our study on ADHD symptomatology among Czech adults and the correlated lifestyles to get a better picture of the condition and how it presents itself, to give a clear idea of questions that could be asked by clinicians to adults regarding their lifestyles and ADHD.We also decided to only stick tol symptomatology rather than previous diagnosis to further refine our research and get a clear picture. Our study was the first to assess ADHD symptoms and investigate lifestyles in the Czech adult population. The study was cross-sectional as this allowed us to assess the symptoms and lifestyles in "real time". The cross-sectional design was a strength as well as a limitation in the sense that we cannot see what the individuals will do in the future, whether symptoms have improved or worsened, or likewise...
Synesthetic associations and psychopathological symtomps.
Neckář, Marcel ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Ptáček, Radek (referee) ; Světlák, Miroslav (referee)
1 Synesthetic associations and psychopathological symptoms Marcel Necká Abstract Synesthesia in general is a phenomenon of intersensory and intrasensory linkage that may be observed in various conditions including artistic creativity and also manifests in conditions of various brain dysfunctions and injuries. Synesthesia is a phenomenon represented by transmodal associative connections that may represent a continuum from strong synesthetic phenomena to its mild forms that may enable creation of "synesthetic" metaphors. This study is focused on projective assessments of word-color association and their relationship to psychopathological measures reflecting stress, depression, dissociation and other psychometric measures in 154 participants selected from general population. The results are in agreement with previous reported studies suggesting that lighter colors are more frequently associated with positive emotional meanings. In addition the results indicate significant relationships of color- word associations to some specific words with depression, anxiety, alexithymia and symptoms of traumatic stress. These results are in ac-cordance with existing findings in context of the so-called metaphorical synesthesia where significant role might be attributed to color intensity. In this context, results of this...
Cognitive Disorganisation and Insight in Schizophrenia.
Toušková Petrásková, Tereza ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Ptáček, Radek (referee) ; Roman, Robert (referee)
Tereza Petrásková Toušková - Cognitive Disorganisation and Insight in Schizophrenia 1 SUMMARY Conscious awareness is related to brain activities represented as unita- ry, integrated and changeable processes reflecting binding of diverse modalities of basic neural informational processes and their subjective components. According to recent research disturbances of self- awareness and conscious experience have a critical role in pathophysi- ology of schizophrenia, which in early stages of the disease mainly in- clude overactivation of the HPA axis. Together these studies suggest that the processes of disrupted awareness and conscious disintegration in schizophrenia likely might be related and represented by similar dis- ruptions on the brain level, which in principle could be explained by various levels of disturbed connectivity and information disintegration that may negatively affect usual patterns of synchronous activity consti- tuting adaptive integrative functions of consciousness. In this context, a purpose of the theoretical part of the disertation is to describe basic neu- robiological mechanisms underlying integrative processes in the brain with its complementarily related mental activities including self- awareness and insight reflecting interrelated processes between mind and brain that implicate...
Hierarchy and human behavior. BDSM as an alternative sexual behaviour.
Jozífková, Eva ; Weiss, Petr (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Zvěřina, Jaroslav (referee)
Preferences for sexual arousal by overstated dominance and submission in sex is categorized as F65.5, sadomasochism, according to ICD, but this behaviour is called BDSM among the general public. The ground of these preferences could be ultimately biological. These preferences reflect behavioural strategy which enables to gain higher reproductive success. Men and women who were sexually aroused by a submissive partner had more male relatives than men and women with other preferences. Contrary to the women, the dominant men reported themselves as more attractive. Women who were aroused by a higher-ranking partner considered themselves more attractive. Sons of couples in which was hierarchical disparity had more siblings than sons of "equal" couples or couples with no hierarchical disparity. Daughters of hierarchically disparate couples had more brothers than daughters of "both dominant" partners. Concurrently, number and gender of offspring as well as self- reported attractiveness are likely to be criteria of the reproductive success in humans. It is also interesting that hierarchically disparate couples, without regard to gender of higher-ranking partner, reached higher reproductive success than "equal" couples. Individuals who preferred higher- or lower-ranking partner were also aroused by...
Neuroimmune and endocrine correlates of stress response and dissociation in affective disorders
Bízik, Gustáv ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Yamamotová, Anna (referee)
Depression and other mental disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and their burden has increased considerably over past decades. However, advances in psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders are not in measure with this negativ trend. As a result, a large body of researchinpsychiatryandneurosciencestries to furtherourunderstanding of pathophysiologicalmechanismsunderlyingmooddisorders andothermentalillnesses in order to improve the efficacy of current treatments and to identify new therapeutic agents. According to current evidence, stress-related pathways and inflammation processes are directly involved in thedevelopment of depressive disorder andseveral other psychiatric conditions.Thestudy of the effects and consequences of stress exposure requires an interdisciplinary approach,taking into account specific aspects of the "inputs", such as chronic stress and traumatic experiences, and related psychological processes, with the crucial role of dissociation. Following these theoretical findings, the empirical research performed in two cohorts of inpatients with depressive disorder focused on immune and endocrine responses to stress and their relationship to psychopathological symptoms, specifically trauma-related symptoms, psychic and somatoform dissociation and depressive...
Therapists' in-session experiences with a depressive client: A grounded theory
Roubal, Jan ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Jakubů, Jiří (referee) ; Čermák, Ivo (referee)
Objective: Empirical literature on the interpersonal reactions elicited by exposure to a depressed individual identified two basic reactions: depressed mood induction and rejection of the depressed person. Relatively not many empirical studies is devoted to the topic of therapists' own experiences when working with depressive clients, although working with depressive clients burdens therapists themselves significantly. This study explores how therapists experience psychotherapy sessions with a currently depressive client and presents a processual theoretical model of the researched phenomenon. Method: Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 30 therapists of various theoretical orientations, yielding a set of 22 in-session event descriptions. The grounded theory method was used as a methodological framework for the analysis. Results: The therapists' experience was conceptualized as Experiential oscillation between gravitating towards a client's depressive experience and moving away from it. It's evolvement over the course of a session is depicted by a model of Depression Co-experiencing Trajectory with six phases: 1. Sharing depressive experience, 2. Turning to oneself, 3. Striving for symptom change, 4. Distancing from depressive experience, 5. Turning to a client, 6. Focusing on...
Psychoneuroimmunology of alexithymia
Uher, Tomáš ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Boleloucký, Zdeněk (referee) ; Smolík, Petr (referee)
Alexithymia represents a deficit in identifying and expressing emotions, paucity of fantasies, and an externally oriented cognitive style. Currently, numerous studies document that alexithymia and several mental and somatic disorders are significantly related. Several findings also indicate that this association might be caused by alexithymia related dysregulation of neuroendocrine and immune functions. Together these findings indicate that stressors related to alexithymia could underlie the process of neuroendocrine and immune dysregulation that likely may present a significant risk, sustaining and mediating pathogenesis of several disorders and particulary psychosomatic illnesses. In this context, it is also known that several proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in pain generation and that alexithymia is significantly associated with pain symptoms in several pain disorders. Following these findings this study includes several new data developing current state of the art and showing some alexithymia specific changes in patients with neurological disorders. Main finding of this study shows that alexithymia and anxiety in their specific interactions are linked to increased levels of interleukine-8 (IL-8) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the group of patients with non-inflammatory neurological...

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