National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Evolutionary dynamics of the CD45 molecule
Dlugošová, Sylvie ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Aghová, Tatiana (referee)
Determining the health state and condition of vertebrates based on hematological traits is currently dependent on technically imperfect and erroneous quantification of blood cells. Solution of this problem can be found in the use of flow cytometry. This is, however, complicated by the presence of nuclear erythrocytes in all vertebrate groups outside the mammals. To distinguish erythrocytes from leukocytes, it is necessary to use specific labeling with a leukocyte marker, which is the CD45 surface molekule encoded by the PTPRC gene. Current literature suggests high expression and structural interspecific variability of this molecule, which highly complicates the possible use of this marker in zoological research. Based on the prediction of domains from genomic sequence data, my analysis comparing the structure of the CD45 in various vertebrate representatives showed a high variability of the extracellular part, even in fibronectin domains, which have been earlier described as conservative. Although the CD45 receptor function has not been sufficiently resolved yet, the existing research results indicate strong positive selection aimed to this molecule. Taken together, although the CD45 is a useful molecular marker, the possibility of designing a universal antibody allowing testing of a wide range of...
Telomeres as indicators of chronological and functional age and ageing in birds
Kyliánková, Hana ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Aghová, Tatiana (referee)
The explanation of ageing processes belongs to the most challenging topics in evolutionary biology. This bachelor thesis provides a basic summary of evolutionary hypotheses of ageing, along with an overview of proximate ageing mechanisms. Main focus is on telomeres and the dynamics of their shortening. Telomeres are non-coding, repetitive sequences of DNA protecting the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes against degradation. They usually shorten with each cell division in most somatic cells until they reach the critical limit (the so called Hayflick limit), when the cell undergoes the replicative senescence and does not divide anymore. Various factors, such as physiological/oxidative stress, stage of reproduction/reproductive investments, and diseases/parasites, can influence telomere length dynamics. Recent studies indicate that telomere length is a useful biomarker for estimating functional, or biological age, but at the same time length of telomeres cannot be used to estimate chronological age. Molecular methods which can be used to measure telomere length, and their potential limitations, are also discussed in this thesis. Finally, I provide an overview of studies focusing on telomere dynamics in bird-oriented research. Key words: Telomeres, ageing, qPCR, birds, oxidative stress

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