National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Migration and morphogenesis of neural crest cells in the context of craniofacial development of selected ray-finned fishes
Štundl, Jan ; Černý, Robert (advisor) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee) ; Machoň, Ondřej (referee)
Neural crest (NC) cells play a crucial role in vertebrate development and evolution. This cell population contributes to many new cell types such as chondrocytes and osteocytes of the head skeleton, neurons, pigment cells, cardiomyocytes, and many others. As such the neural crest is often considered as the fourth germ layer. This vertebrate-specific cell population emerges during formation of the neural tube. Whereas in the trunk region NC cells migrate as separate cells, cranial neural crest (CNC) cells extensively migrate in three discrete streams forming most of the head mesenchyme. In all vertebrates, CNC stereotypically follows the tripartite pattern of migration along the anteroposterior axis so that the most anterior (trigeminal) stream emerges first, followed by the hyoid and branchial CNC streams. In this work, I have studied representatives of all three lineages of non-teleost fishes (bichir, sturgeon, and gar) and also one species from the crown group of ray-finned fishes, the pike. The main question I addressed in my project was whether the CNC cells stereotypically follow a tripartite pattern of migration along the anteroposterior axis as is seen throughout vertebrates. Surprisingly, I found several alterations in the emergence of CNC cells and their migratory pattern in the studied...
Comparison of migration and morphogenesis of neural crest cells in Ray-finned fishes: towards identification of developmental sources of craniofacial diversity
Štundl, Jan ; Černý, Robert (advisor) ; Drobná Krejčí, Eliška (referee)
Extensively migrating population of neural crest cells, which contributes to many tissues and builds up most of craniofacial vertebrate structures, has a crucial role in embryonic development of vertebrate body. The migratory pathways of neural crest cells are thought to be very conserved throughout the vertebrates and cranial neural crest migration is defined by progression of three migratory streams: trigeminal, hyoid and a common branchial stream. In this diploma thesis, migration of cranial neural crest was analysed using embryos of the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus) and of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), which represent two basal-most lineages of extant ray-finned fishes. A combination of several techniques was used in both species in order to study cranial neural crest cells from their sites of origin to post- migratory stages and the pattern of migration was compared and discussed in revealed embryonic context. In the Senegal bichir the hyoid neural crest stream was shown to migrate first and it is also the most abundant; this heterochrony shift is apparently related to formation of external gills, which in bichir are situated on the hyoid arch only. In sterlet, neural crest cells migrate in a classic pattern of three progressive streams but their dynamics and patterning is influenced by...
Neural crest biology with respect to diversity of vertebrates
Štundl, Jan ; Černý, Robert (advisor) ; Němec, Pavel (referee)
Neural crest is an extensively migrating population of cells that arise during early development of vertebrate embryos. It provides a huge variety of different cell types that generate new tissues which occur only in vertebrates. Neural crest cells together with the mesoderm participate on the formation of the head of vertebrates, which is viewed as one of the most important innovations in the evolution of vertebrates. Thanks to their skeletogenic potencial neural crest cells are percieved as a key factor causing massive craniofacial diversity. The aim of this thesis was to get acquainted with the population of neural crest cells and try to understand its importance for the evolution of vertebrates and especially for generating craniofacial diversity.

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