National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The importance of NMDA antagonists in animal models of ischemic injury and major depressive disease
Kletečková, Lenka ; Valeš, Karel (advisor) ; Zach, Petr (referee) ; Ježek, Karel (referee)
Glutamatergic system is the main excitatory system and glutamatergic receptors are the most abundantly expressed in whole central nervous system. The most widespread type of glutamatergic receptors are N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors which are essential for physiological development of nervous tissue, synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. On the other hand, over-activation of these receptors leads to excitotoxic damage of nervous tissue and serious neurological consequences for future quality of life. Disruption of glutamatergic system is common feature for hypoxic-ischemic damage, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore glutamatergic system and specifically NMDA receptors are an attractive target for neuropharmacological research. Presented thesis explores the effect of several molecules with modulating inhibiting effect on NMDA receptor. Work is preferentially focused on application research; the main aim is evaluated therapeutic potential of studied compounds. First group of compounds is represented by neuroactive steroids pregnanolone glutamate and pregnanolone hemipimelate, which are allosteric inhibitors of NMDA receptor. Here, their neuroprotective effect is demonstrated in hypoxic-ischemic and excitotoxic damage of nervous tissue....
Mesenchymal stromal cells and biological scaffolds for neural tissue regeneration
Kočí, Zuzana ; Kubinová, Šárka (advisor) ; Filová, Eva (referee) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
Despite tremendous progress in medicine, injuries of the adult central neural system remain without satisfactory solution. Regenerative medicine employs tissue engineering, cellular therapies, medical devices, gene therapy, or growth factors with the aim to bridge the lesion, re-establish lost connections and enhance endogenous repair in order to restore neural function. The aim of my thesis was to evaluate therapeutic potential of two approaches, transplantation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and biological scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix (ECM) for neural regeneration, particularly in models of spinal cord injury (SCI). First, hMSCs from various sources - bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT) and Wharton's jelly (WJ) - were isolated and characterized in vitro. All cell types met the minimal criteria for MSC phenotype and displayed similar properties in terms of their surface marker expression, differentiation potential, migratory capacity, and secretion of cytokines and growth factors. On the other hand, the cell yield from WJ and AT was significantly higher, and MSCs isolated from these tissues proliferated better than from BM. Therapeutic effect of intrathecal application of hWJ-MSCs was then evaluated in SCI compression model in rats. The effect of low (0.5 million) and...
Brain Activation Sequences
Šusta, Marek ; Šonka, Karel (advisor) ; Krajča, Vladimír (referee) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
Brain Activation Sequences Abstract INTRODUCTION: This research goes beyond the EEG source localization up to the field of brain connectivity in an attempt to create software tool that eases diagnostic procedures in selected nosologic units by discriminating between patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Experiment 1 - a group of 26 adult patients (14 male, 12 female) suffering from NC and 10 adult controls (5 male, 5 female) participated in the experiment. The experiment contained audio recordings designed to trigger laughter in participants during the EEG recording. Experiment 2 - twenty eight female inpatients diagnosed with ED and ten healthy controls were selected and presented with various stimuli while the EEG was recorded. The Brain Activation Sequences method, applied to all recordings, utilizes nonlinear differential model structure to calculate final output sequence of the brain locations involved substantially in the stimulus processing. RESULTS: Experiment 1 - the BAS results show statistically significant differences in activity between patients and controls namely in gyrus orbitalis, rectus, occipitalis inferior (right), occipitalis medius (right), paracentralis, cinguli, cuneus (right) and parahippocampalis (left). Experiment 2 - the results confirm significant differences in processing the...
Volumetry and laterality of CNS structures in animal experiments and in human (in health and disease)
Mrzílková, Jana ; Zach, Petr (advisor) ; Syka, Josef (referee) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
Our work is composed of part done on laboratory rat, part done on magnetic resonance images and autoptic CNS tissue in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control group. In the first part we observed volumetrically and stereologically morphological, right-left asymmetries of structures of CNS, gross marks of neurodegeneration and changes in the number of neurons and conditioned taste aversion (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, parabrachial nucleus, amygdalar complex). We measured under normal conditions and under chronic stress induced by corticosterone. Chronic stress is possible candidate for AD development in humans. We found that structural lesion is side specific (on the right) and it is bound rather to subcellular level and not to absolute neuronal numbers changes. In the second part we examined changes in the grey matter of the CNS (by automatic segmentation and manually) and changes in the white matter of the CNS (tractography) in patients with AD and in controls on magnetic resonance. In the autoptic tissue we focused on asymmetrical morphological changes in the planum temporale and neurohistological changes in its third neuronal layer. We found out that decrease of the hippocampal volume is not accompanied by cerebellar or pontine volume and that reorientation of images is not necessary for...
Changes in neuroglia in degenerative disorders of the central nervous system
Kirdajová, Denisa ; Zach, Petr (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Neurodegenerative diseases are a serious disorders of the central nervous system characterized by neuronal loss with a subsequent damage of the brain. This damage may have diverse consequences like a gradual loss of memory and intellect, problems with musculoskeletal system and not least death. Causes of these diseases are not yet fully understood. In addition to neurons neuroglia also plays an important role in these diseases of the central nervous system. In neurodegenerative diseases are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2 cells involved in their many aspects. They participate in the protective as well as in the detrimental aspect of these diseases. This work, therefore, presents an overview of previously acquired knowledge of neuroglia in various types of degenerative disorders of the CNS (Alzheimer`s disease, Parkinson`s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Wernicke encephalopathy, HIV associated dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia). Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Learning and memory in Nogo-A knockdown rats
Petrásek, Tomáš ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Zach, Petr (referee) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee)
The Nogo-A protein belongs among the most important regulatory molecules in the brain, regulating development of neuronal and glial cells, axon guidance and adult synaptic plasticity. Although it has been studied mainly as an obstacle to axon regeneration after CNS injury, it plays a role in many pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. This work offers a literature review of the current knowledge about functions of Nogo-A and related proteins, and then recapitulates the results of experiments focused on the impact on decreased expression of Nogo-A on behavior in a transgenic rat model. The most important finding is that the Carousel Maze performance, tapping higher cognitive functions such as cognitive coordination and cognitive flexibility, is remarkably impaired in this model, while other cognitive functions, such as spatial navigation and both spatial and non-spatial memory are spared in the Nogo-A deficient rats. The results are discussed in the context of a hypothesis linking Nogo-A mutations or abnormal expression to human schizophrenia. We conclude that the Nogo-A deficient rats constitute a very promising animal model of schizophrenia and deserve further attention. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Astrocytic changes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena ; Syková, Eva (advisor) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
1. SUMMARY: In this thesis we reported astrocytic atrophy characterized by a reduction in the surface area and volume of GFAP-positive glial cells in the prefrontal cortex of 3xTg-AD mice - an important morphological alteration starting far before any well known histopathological hallmark of AD. This change is present in parallel with homeostatic failure suggested by the decreased expression of GS. Those alterations can have drastic effects on brain connectivity and the biochemistry of the main neurotransmitters within the brain, such as glutamate and GABA. GFAP is implicated in a variety of processes, such as cell migration and proliferation, neurite outgrowth, astrocytic glutamate transporter expression (GLAST and GLT-1) and synaptic plasticity, so that every change can shift the astrocytes' role from physiology to pathology. In the case of affected GFAP-IR astrocytes, the withdrawal of processes from neurons and synapses can lead to a severe transmission crush, due to the uncontrolled spillover of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft, inadequate metabolic support and the lack of a physiological barrier between the affected synapse and other synapses in its close vicinity. This will directly disturb the reciprocal connections between the affected brain regions, inluding the important structures...
A neuroprotective effect of the 3α5β-pregnanolon glutamate in the animal model of ischemic brain injury
Kletečková, Lenka ; Valeš, Karel (advisor) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
The neuroactive steroid 3α5β-pregnanolon glutamate (3α5βP-Glu) is the synthetic analogue of a naturally-occurring 3α5β-pregnanolon sulfate. Both agents inhibit preferentially tonically activated NMDA receptors by a use-dependent mechanism. The aplication of 3α5βP-Glu could reduce the excitotoxic injury of the brain during ischemic conditions, in which plays role the excessive activation of NMDA receptors. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of systemic aplication of 3α5βP-Glu on an oxygen saturation and a regional cerebral blood flow in the brain of laboratory rat. Subsequently to establish and critically evaluate the animal model of a global ischemic brain injury. Finally to test the neuroprotective potential of 3α5βP-Glu on cognitive funtions in this model. The oxygen saturation and regional cerebral blood flow were measured in the area of dorsal hippocampus. Both observed parametres were significantly increased after the application of3α5βP-Glu. These findings confirm the assumption that 3α5βP-Glu has a neuroprotective effect. The bilateral occlusions of arteriae carotis communis following placement of the rat into a hypoxic box has been utilized as a model of global ischemic brain injury. The aplication of 3α5βP-Glu increased significantly the rats survival. However,...
Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Proximal Humerus and Rotator cuff attachment : Study of Clinical Anatomy for Optimization of Shoulder Arthroplasty Implantation
Hromádka, Rastislav ; Pokorný, David (advisor) ; Gallo, Jiří (referee) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
The thesis describes the anatomical study, which has been taken place at Orthopedic Clinic of the 1st Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital and at Institute of Anatomy 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague from 2002 till 2009. The study was focused on the area of the upper part of the humerus in order to measure spatial relationships among anatomical structures, especially attachments of rotator cuff muscles to optimize implantation arthroplasty of shoulder joint. Clinico-anatomical study, which results were published in 2010, was also based at measuring angular relations of structures proximal humerus. The proximal humerus was marked by 29 points on the cortical bone, which defined the position of the medial margin of the greater tubercle, the lateral margin of the lesser tubercle, bicipital groove, the crest of greater tubercle and to define position of the proximal humeral metaphyseal axis and anatomical neck. Measurements were carried out in the transversal planes and the measurement method was developed on the reconstruction and the spatial definition of basic axes (axis of humeral head and axis of proximal humeral shaft) with the optimized number of reference points of anatomical neck and cortical bone of proximal humeral shaft. Angles between the axis of the head...

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