National Repository of Grey Literature 40 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Molecular syndromology: molecular genetic causes of rare diseases illustrated with Kabuki and Kabuki-like syndromes
Paděrová, Jana ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Baxová, Alice (referee) ; Fajkusová, Lenka (referee)
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a dominantly inherited rare disease caused mainly by de novo pathogenic variants (henceforward mutations) in the KMT2D (formerly MLL2) and KDM6A genes. It is rare multisystemic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and typical facial dysmorphism. KS is clinically heterogeneous, which complicates its clinical diagnosis. The first aim of this thesis was to introduce mutation testing of the two known KS causative genes in KS by Sanger DNA sequencing and by MLPA (Multiple Ligation Probe Amplification) at the Department of Biology and Medical Genetics of 2nd Medical Faculty of Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague followed by identification of underlying genetic mutations in KMT2D/KDM6A genes in 43 patients with phenotype typical for KS, who were indicated for this molecular genetic analysis by several collaborating genetic departments in the Czech Republic. We aimed to confirm or disprove of patient's clinical diagnosis, establish spectra of KMT2D/KDM6A mutations in the Czech population, render phenotype-genotype correlations and evaluate the phenotypic "MLL2-score" (published by Makrithanasis et al., 2013) utility as prediction tool for selection of cases for KMT2D sequencing. Mutations in the KMT2D gene were detected by Sanger DNA sequencing...
Preimplantation genetic haplotyping in genetically risk families
Borgulová, Irena ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Trávník, Pavel (referee) ; Veselá, Kateřina (referee)
PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC HAPLOTYPING IN GENETICALLY RISK FAMILIES Abstract of Irena Borgulova's PhD study Page 1/1 ABSTRACT Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is at the intersection of assisted reproduction and clinical genetics. PGD precedes prenatal diagnosis because consists in biopsy of a single embryonic cell and its examination excluding genetic risks before embryo transfer back to mother uterus. Methods within PGD can offer all spectrums of possible investigations of a single cell, whether focused on monogenic disorders, chromosomal aberration or abnormality of whole genome. Monogenic diseases in embryos can be detected by direct or indirect linkage analysis. Indirect linkage analysis has the advantage compared to direct analysis that it is able to indentify pertinent aberration of examined chromosome. Indirect linkage analysis is characterised by preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) which is prime and important constituent of PGD cycle. PGH is based on family anamnesis for determination of pathologic/ high-risk (mutation-associated) haplotype and healthy/ low-risk (without mutation) haplotype by comparison with the haplotypes of other family members. PGD cycle requires in vitro fertilisation (IVF). IVF cycle includes hormonal stimulation, biopsy of oocytes and their fertilisation outside...
Utilization of new generation sequencing methods to elucidate cystic fibrosis-like phenotype at patients with unclear illness of molecular type.
Matějčková, Iva ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Holá, Dana (referee)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is genetically conditioned, autosomal recessive disease that occurs in the European population with a prevalence of about 1:2500 - 1:1800. In this disease we observe a mutation of the CTFR gene with subsequent fault in chloride channels. Such afflicted individuals usually suffer from chronic respiratory problems, pancreatic insufficiency, high concentration of chloride ions in sweat and obstructive azoospermia. Genetic testing of CFTR gene is indicated in individuals who meet the CF clinical picture and a positive sweat test (increased concentration of chlorides in the sweat). Genetic testing of the CFTR gene is usually done by using commercial kits detecting the most common mutations of the CFTR gene in the Czech Republic. If the testing results are negative, it is further performed an MLPA method that captures the larger deletions and duplications of gene, eventually a sequencing of all exons is. Despite the well-established algorithm of the testing, some patients suffering from symptoms of CF are left without genetic findings. Thanks to development of next generation sequencing, it is possible to make the diagnosis of CF more effective and uncover the variants that were not captured by previous methods.
Regulation of cell cycle and DNA damage response in mouse oocytes.
Mayer, Alexandra ; Šolc, Petr (advisor) ; Macůrek, Libor (referee) ; Macek, Milan (referee)
A specific feature of mammalian oocytes is a long prophase I arrest, which can be maintained for many years in humans. The oocytes must ensure robust mechanisms, which can keep them in prophase I, but effectively trigger meiotic resumption when required. Consequently, throughout the maturation of an oocyte, non-erroneous chromosome segregation is a prerequisite for the generation of healthy offspring. In this study we aimed to investigate the new roles of Aurora A (AURKA) and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in the regulation of the cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we used transgenic mice that specifically overexpress wild type (WT-) or kinase-dead (KD-) AURKA in oocytes only, and to study PLK1 we treated oocytes with BI2536, a small molecule inhibitor known to specifically inhibit PLK1 in somatic cells. Our data show, that both AURKA and PLK1 are not essential for meiotic resumption, however they participate in this process. Active AURKA regualtes the increase in microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) in prophase I, which is the first visible marker of resumption of meiosis in oocytes. AURKA activation is biphasic, and the initial increase in MTOC is transient, while full AURKA activation needed for the stability of MTOC requires the activity of Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). We show that PLK1...
Optimization of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in the Czech Republic
Krulišová, Veronika ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Vrtěl, Radek (referee) ; Hřebíček, Martin (referee)
Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis allows diagnosing patients with cystic fibrosis during asymptomatic stage of their disease or when the symptoms had not fully developed. Due to early diagnosis, patients with cystic fibrosis have the possibility to be treated prior to the occurrence of irreversible changes in the relevant organs, which leads to significantly improved quality of life and patient survival. Commented version of the doctoral thesis presents issues concerning the selection of a suitable newborn screening programme for cystic fibrosis in neonates born in the Czech Republic and establishes requirements for particular analytical and molecular genetics tiers in the tested screening schemes. The aim of this thesis is to nominate newborn screening protocol for cystic fibrosis that leads to optimal parameters in terms of its high sensitivity and specificity, including acceptable costs in the conditions of the Czech Republic health care system. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow an peripheral blood in patients with breast cancer.
Čabiňaková, Michaela ; Tesařová, Petra (advisor) ; Konopásek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Macek, Milan (referee)
Introduction: Simultaneous detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) was shown to be associated with an especially poor prognosis and increased incidence of disease-related deaths in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. We analyzed the occurance of DTCs in bone marrow and CTCs in peripheral blood in patients with primary breast cancer, we evaluated the correlation of their presence with other prognostic markers and we investigated the changes in DTCs/CTCs number at different time points during treatment. Materials and methods: Blood of 50 patients with primary breast cancer were used for immunomagnetic separation and detection of circulating tumor cells using the commercial available system the AdnaTest Breast Cancer™ (AdnaGen GmbH, Langenhagen, Germany). Bone marrow aspirates from 50 patients were analyzed for DTCs by immunocytochemistry using the pancytokeratin antibody conjugated with FITC (Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin antibody F3418, Sigma Aldrich, USA). Results: DTCs were identified in 30% (15/50) and CTCs in 22% (11/50) of patients. We found that DTC positivity could point to a significantly high risk of larger primary tumor size (p- value 0.011) and significantly higher risk of lymph node involvement (p- value 0.002). For CTC positivity, no such...
Characterization of promoter regions of HGSNAT and GBA genes, and a contribution to the study of pathogenesis of MPS IIIC and Gaucher disease
Richtrová, Eva ; Hřebíček, Martin (advisor) ; Macek, Milan (referee) ; Adam, Tomáš (referee)
Pathogenesis of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC (MPS IIIC) and Gaucher disease has not been yet fully clarified, and the causes of phenotypical variability between the patients with the same genotype in Gaucher disease remain obscure. Because the variants in the regulatory regions of genes can cause phenotypical differences mentioned above, I have studied promoter regions of HGSNAT and GBA genes mutated in these lysosomal disorders. I have shown that there is an alternative promoter of GBA (P2). Additional studies were aimed to elucidate possible physiological functions of P2, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Gaucher disease. I have found that P2 is not tissue specific, and that its variants do not influence the variability of phenotype in Gaucher patients with the same genotype. P2 is used differentially neither during the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages nor in macrophages from controls and Gaucher patients, in whom there is a prominent storage only in cells of macrophage origin. We have thus not found any changes that would suggest a role for P2 in the pathogenesis of Gaucher disease. I have characterized the promoter region of HGSNAT and shown that the binding of Sp1 transcription factor is important for its expression. Sequence variants found in HGSNAT promoter in...
The increased diagnostic efficiency of QF-PCR for aneuploidy of amniotic fluid
Sedláková, Zdeňka ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Daňková, Pavlína (referee)
Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) is a molecular genetic method based on the amplification of microsatellites (Short tandem repeats, STR) and measurement of the peak heights of amplicons in the electropherogram. Currently, the QF-PCR deemed reliable, fast, and inexpensive method that is gradually replacing conventional cytogenetic analysis of aneuploidy (examination of long-term cultures of amniotic fluid). However, in certain cases it is impossible to determine the parental origin and meiotic aneuploidy by QF-PCR. The aim of this work was to verify the new dinucleotide STR markers on chromozomes 13, 16, 18, 21, and 22 and further increase the diagnostic efficiency of QF-PCR retaining other STR markers on chromozome 15, 16, 22 and to determine the population and the analytical characteristics of these markers. For all dinucleotide STR markers stutter occurred in high frequency and therefore there were found not to be suitable for routine diagnostics. STR markers for chromozomes 15, 16 and 22 were tested on 100 patients. We selected four informative markers for both chromozome 16 and 22, and three markers for chromozome 15. Thus, I expanded set of diagnostic STR markers in this thesis.
Molecular genetic diagnostics of cystic fibrosis, hyperhomocysteinemia-related disorders and male infertility: validation and application of high resolution melting
Norambuena Baraquet, Patricia Alejandra Del Pilar ; Macek, Milan (advisor) ; Jirsa, Milan (referee) ; Vrtěl, Radek (referee)
Diagnostic test results are crucial for treatment management and family planning of an individual. Considering that around 80% of medical decisions are based on diagnostic tests and that genotyping is usually concluded only once in a lifetime, it is of a great importance to assure highly accurate test results and provided under high quality standards. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common and life-threatening autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting mainly Caucasian populations. CF is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene and until this date, more than 1900 mutations have been detected, while only few of them have frequencies higher than 1% worldwide. Thus, to confirm the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in patients where only one disease-causing mutation has been found, it is necessary to apply a sensitive test to search for uncommon CFTR gene mutations/variants. In this work, we have successfully used HRM for gene scanning of certain exons of the CFTR gene. We have confirmed the numerous advantages of the HRM method for gene scanning and also detect some limitations that must be considered through an implementation process in a DNA diagnostic laboratory. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been proposed as a risk factor for several diseases such as recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia and...

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3 Macek, Marek
5 Macek, Martin
1 Macek, Matěj
5 Macek, Michal
2 Macek, Miroslav
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