National Repository of Grey Literature 62 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Essays on Local Politics
Kuliomina, Jekaterina ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Bagues, Manuel (referee) ; Baltrunaite, Audinga (referee)
In the first chapter I analyse whether electing more women to municipal councils can affect female political candidacy in the future. I use cases of close elections in Czech municipalities and a regression discontinuity design (RDD). I find that fewer female candidates run in elections following the marginal election of an additional woman in the prior electoral cycle. The effect is stronger in those municipalities where the marginal female candidate joined two or more other female candidates in the council, indicating that sufficient representation, as viewed by the politicians or the community, was a likely mechanism behind the observed effect. In the second chapter I question whether personal characteristics of local politicians such as gender, education and occupation influence municipal budget allocation. I find no evidence that any of these characteristics matter for budget allocation, deficit or debt. These findings hold even in the smallest municipalities, where the influence of every single council member on council decisions should be larger. In the final chapter I analyze how a temporary increase in council responsibilities, budget and interaction with the community in a municipality can affect the candidacy of local independent politicians. I take the flooding in the Czech Republic in 2002 as a...
Employment effects of minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic
Grossmann, J. ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Smolka, V.
This study examines the direct effects of four minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic during 2012-2017 on the employment of low-earning workers in the business sector. This series of minimum wage increases followed a period of 7 years during which the national minimum wage was not raised. During the period studied, the monthly minimum wage was raised by 37.5 % overall, from 8,000 to 11,000 CZK. To estimate the effects of the minimum wage increases we make use of the fact that various companies or parts of companies reported different shares of employees who were paid at or below the level of the new minimum wage. We estimate whether, within a given company, homogeneous groups of employees in which a greater proportion were previously paid less than the new minimum wage were disproportionately badly affected in terms of their employment (or hours worked) after the change than groups of employees unaffected by the raise to the minimum wage. Our results show that the national minimum wage increases in 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017 did not have any significant negative effects on employment. They did, however, have a positive effect on salaries. Even at the start of 2019, the minimum wage in the Czech Republic remains low in comparison to other European countries and affects only a small proportion of workers. Our findings however cannot be taken as an indication that potential future minimum wage increases would also have negligible effects on employment. It is thus essential to regularly assess in detail what the effects of future increases to the minimum wage would be.
Vliv institucí na přeshraniční rozptyl
Schwarz, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
This thesis, building on existing studies on border effect, analyzes price dispersion among cities in the European region over the last twenty years (1990-2009). An extensive overview of the literature reveals that the authors completely neglect the entrepreneurial aspect of the arbitrage process, even though arbitrage is the main power behind the law of one price. Once we understand arbitrage as productive entrepreneurial activity, institutional quality should be one of determinants of arbitrage attractiveness and should, therefore, influence the price dispersion. To test this hypothesis I express the quality of institutions as one of the factors influencing total costs of arbitrage, together with population density in cities used as a proxy for competition intensity, and distance. The regression analysis proves that all three variables explain a part of observed price dispersion - the higher is the density and the better are the institutions, the lower is the predicted dispersion. This result can also be viewed as a small contribution to the emerging literature empirically testing the theory of productive and unproductive entrepreneurship.
Impact of institutions on Cross-Border Price dispersion
Schwarz, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
This thesis, building on existing studies on border effect, analyzes price dispersion among cities in the European region over the last twenty years (1990-2009). An extensive overview of the literature reveals that the authors completely neglect the entrepreneurial aspect of the arbitrage process, even though arbitrage is the main power behind the law of one price. Once we understand arbitrage as productive entrepreneurial activity, institutional quality should be one of determinants of arbitrage attractiveness and should, therefore, influence the price dispersion. To test this hypothesis I express the quality of institutions as one of the factors influencing total costs of arbitrage, together with population density in cities used as a proxy for competition intensity, and distance. The regression analysis proves that all three variables explain a part of observed price dispersion - the higher is the density and the better are the institutions, the lower is the predicted dispersion. This result can also be viewed as a small contribution to the emerging literature empirically testing the theory of productive and unproductive entrepreneurship. Keywords: border effect, price dispersion, price convergence, law of one price, institutional quality, entrepreneurship
Company names and their influence on company productivity
Hanousek, Jan ; Jurajda, Štěpán
Our analysis reveals that a company’s name may be related to its economic productivity. The name’s alphabetical position, the use of “national”4 words, and the inclusion of English phrases within the name all play a role. This study looks at the association between certain characteristics of a company’s name and growth in the company’s turnover, growth in value added and profit from shares using company data from 17 EU countries over a period of more than 15 years. We distinguish between companies in countries where Romance languages, Slavic languages and Germanic languages are spoken. The effects of company names vary across these language-country groups. The link between the alphabetical position of the name and the company’s economic productivity is strongest in the services sector. For example in France and Poland moving the company’s name from the end of the alphabet to the beginning can result in increased turnover by as much as two percentage points. The influence of “national” words in the company’s name is connected with higher long-term growth in turnover, in particular in Poland, France and Norway. In Poland the use of “national” words can increase long-term growth in turnover by nearly four percentage points. The influence of including English words in the company’s name varies across the languagecountry groups. While in the Romance group English words have a negative infuence, in Germanic group of countries they have mixed effects, and in Slavic language speaking countries they have a clear positive effect. This study adds to existing analyses in the field of marketing and linguistics that have focused in particular on the origin of brand and company names, and to research into the effects of company names on share profits.
Birds of a feather: the importance of selecting the right field of study for finding the right partner
Bičáková, Alena ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Zapletalová, L.
Selective pairing is a tendency toward choosing a life partner with the same level of attained education, resulting in educational homogamy, a phenomenon which has been the focus of extensive research for sociologists, demographers and economists. The present study, based on a research paper by Bičáková and Jurajda (2016), looks into an as yet unexplored aspect of selective pairing: the degree of field-of-study homogamy, mapping the degree to which couples within the EU countries are formed by people who have chosen the same field of study.
Women and men in Czech R & D: publication performance, productivity and co-authorship
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Kozubek, Stanislav ; Münich, Daniel ; Škoda, Samuel
This study offers the first systematic comparison of scientific publication performance of men and women in the Czech Republic. We analyze the period 2009 – 2013 and focus on publication output of Czech scientists in journals indexed in the Web of Science database in 11 broad field groups. In addition to the quantity of publications, we assess the quality of published articles using journal bibliometric indicators as a proxy for article quality.
Labour market restrictions and migration flows in the European Union: the case of Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine
Ducháč, Tomáš ; Strielkowski, Wadim (advisor) ; Jurajda, Štěpán (referee)
The thesis aims to estimate the future migration flows from Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova to the EU. Based on the experience of previous EU enlargements and econometric modelling using the method of Ordinary Least Squares with Fixed Effects, multiple forecasts are created. The forecasts capture the likely development of migration flows in the event of collapse of labour market restrictions as well as the case of no labour market liberalization. The results show that migration flows are expected to be moderate, posing no threats to the stability of the labour markets of EU member states. The increase of migration due to the accession to the EU is likely to be short-term, without substantial impacts in the long-run. Ukraine has the biggest migration potential and is likely to supply the highest amount of labour migration.
The determinants of reform: The case of transition countries
Davladze, Mariam ; Horváth, Roman (advisor) ; Jurajda, Štěpán (referee)
The thesis estimates the reform determinants for 24 transition countries using spatial econometrics by maximum likelihood estimation. In the thesis is included determinants already used by other authors, as well as, two new variables - export and foreign direct investments measures. Another distinctive characteristic is inclusion of spatial endogenous and exogenous variables as explanatory variables through the use of weights matrix - W. Obtained spatial interaction is positive and high. For spatial coefficient rho value varies in the range 0.22 to 0.71 indicating on significant spatial influence among entities. From spatial exogenous coefficients I obtained significant democracy, inflation, export and FDI coefficients. I also find that the initial effect of GDP growth, FDI and democracy are important determiners of reforming process. Keywords Reform Determinants, Spatial weights matrix, spillover effect Author's e-mail mariamdavladze@yahoo.com Supervisor's e-mail roman.horvath@gmail.com

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