Filosofický ústav

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2018-03-09
13:20
A general framework for logics of questions
Punčochář, Vít
This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a large class of non-classical logics and so avoids paradoxes of material implication and irrelevance in the logic of questions. Moreover, it is advocated that the general framework does not lose any of the characteristic features of basic inquisitive semantics that are needed for modeling of questions.

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2018-03-09
13:20
Substructural logics for pooling information
Sedlár, Igor ; Punčochář, Vít
This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on information models for substructural logics and pooling is represented by fusion of information states. This approach yields a representation of\npooling related to structured communication within groups of agents. It is shown that the generalized account avoids some problematic features of the intersection-based approach. Our main technical result is a sound and complete axiomatization of a substructural epistemic logic with an operator expressing pooling.\n

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2018-03-09
13:20
Knowledge is a Diamond
Punčochář, Vít
In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of knowledge, according to which an agent a knows a proposition iff a has a reliable (e.g. sensory) evidence that supports the proposition. In this interpretation, knowledge is viewed rather as an existential, i.e. a diamond modality. In this paper, we will propose a formal semantics for substructural logics that allows to model knowledge on the basis of this intuition. The framework is strongly motivated by a similar semantics introduced by (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). However, as we will argue, our framework overcomes some unintuitive features of the semantics from (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). Most importantly, knowledge does not distribute over disjunction in our logic.

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2018-03-09
13:19
The Development in the Czech Republic. Barriers and Opportunities
Machleidt, Petr ; Mráček, K.
The paper deals with the situation of Technology Assessment in the Czech Republic. There is a well-developed theoretical basis of TA but a relatively weak TA practice. We are lacking a broad and concrete institutional lay down of TA, in particular, there is no effective link to relevant legislative activities. The concept of TA can also be viewed as a right tool for research and innovation policy in the Czech Republic. Teaching in the field of TA is also important. The positive acceptance of TA problems by students at the TU Prague shows new opportunities for the establishment of TA in the Czech Republic. The idea of “industry 4.0” is also a great challenge for TA in the Czech Republic.

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2018-03-09
13:19
Interpretation of Comenius by Jan Patočka in the context of his philosophy of history
Schifferová, Věra
Patočka´s interest in Comenius was motivated by his interest in the philosophy of history. The chapter demonstrates Patočka´s concern with Comenius which resultated from Patočka´s focus on the turn from the Christian man to the man without Christiantiy as well as from his interest in the crisis of the modern man. For Patočka, the spiritual transformation, which is the main of civilisation difficulties of the modern humanity lies in replacing one´s “open soul” with a soul that´s “closed”. Patočka approaches Comenius as a thinker who´s difference from the main ideational trend of the modern age might be enormously inspirational in searching for a new spiritual path, whithout which our current humanity has no chance of leading itself out of the crisis that was brought on it by scinetific and technical civilisation; attention is drawn to the issue “pedagogy of the turn” towards the openness in the Post-European period.

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2018-03-07
15:28
Nepodmíněný základní příjem. Nástroj proti sociálním nahodilostem
Brabec, Martin
Příspěvek představuje myšlenku Nepodmíněného základního příjmu a ukazuje, jak může přispět ke snížení sociálních dopadů různých druhů nahodilostí ve společnosti. Nejprve jsou prezentovány hlavní rysy NZP a jeho odlišnost od současných podmíněných dávek. Dále je rozebrána morální obhajoba základního příjmu a to v klasické koncepci Thomase Paina i její moderní podobě u Van Parijse. V následné, hlavní části příspěvku, je představeno šest rysů, kterými může přispět základní příjem ke snížení sociálních rizik ve společnosti.

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2017-12-20
13:37
Etika a politika pravdy. Hito Steyerl a Michel Foucault
Bierhanzl, Jan
The documentarist turn in visual art reintroduces the question of the relationship between a work of art and truth. However, rather than the truth of the work in the sense of mimesis or authenticity, it is the politics of truth. In a double entendre: documentary forms express power relationships but being themselves a political act they may represent resistance against the power relationships. This generally political approach to truth in art falls, in our opinion, within at least two philosophical-political traditions. The first is Marx and Marxism and the question of the relationship of a work of art to social circumstances. Regarding that Hito Steyerl explicitly espouses Michel Foucault, in step two we will try to refer the issue of the relationship between a work of art and truth to the three fundamental axes of Foucault’s thought — power, knowledge and the subject.

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2017-12-20
13:37
Demokratická civilizace a dezinformační propaganda ve středoevropském geopolitickém prostoru
Bednář, Miloslav
Klíčový geopolitický prostor mezi Německem a Ruskem si včetně Německa a Ruska zatím nevytvořil solidní demokratickou politickou kulturu. Proto je oproti např. Británii a USA poměrně snadno ovlivnitelný soustavnou dezinformační propagandou zaměřenou proti demokratické civilizaci.

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2017-09-18
15:25
From Denunciation to Humour. Forms of Attacks by Preachers on non-Roman Catholic Believers in selected Czech Sunday Postils
Havelka, Tomáš
This paper deals with forms of attacks on protestants in bohemical sermons mainly in second half of 17th Century and first half of 18th Century. Although counter reformation has definitely changed confessional conditions in Bohemia after victory on White Mountain battle, protestants persisted as one of most dangerous and strange enemy of pure faith. This attitude aimed mainly to Czech speaking believers and has been persuasively repeated in a lot of deeply influential homiletic works, namely in postils (in Sunday as well as in Feast ones). The aim of paper is inspect the most important Czech Sunday postils and evaluate frequency, strategy and forms of attacks. Excerpted postils were written by Š. Berlička-Scipio, M. V. Štajer, K. Račín, Š. F. Náchodský, F. Veselý, A. Koniáš etc. Some of these postils were clearly published as „a tool“ of strict counter reformation (M. V. Štajer, A. Koniáš), thus shape of their attitudes to protestants should be interesting. Other postils were composed as a manifestation of a moderate process of the counter reformation (F. Veselý); finally, we can find authors with really peculiar way of literary form and type of persuasion as well (Š. F. Náchodský).

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2017-03-17
18:38
"Ars rhetorica" a "ars combinatoria" v podání jezuitského kazatele Caspara Knittela
Svatoš, Martin
První část příspěvku se věnuje srovnání klasické rétoriky s novou elokvencí, jak byla vyučována a praktikována jezuity v České provincii Tovaryšstva Ježíšova. Druhá část přibližuje univerzitní kázání profesora pražské univerzity a univerzitního kazatele P. Caspara Knittela SJ, která jsou typickým příkladem konceptuální tvorby v literatuře konce 17. a první poloviny 18. století a - dle názoru autora příspěvku - jedním z vrcholů konceptismu v českých zemích.

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