Filosofický ústav

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2019-02-13
17:43
Moderní technologie a historická metoda
Sommer, Petr
Současná tendence zapojování nových technologií a metod do historické práce vede k mimořádnému rozšíření zpracovatelských možností velkých souborů pramenů, stále je však nutné formulovat jasné badatelské otázky a očekávané cíle.

Úplný záznam
2019-01-07
14:42
Obchodní kontakty pražských měšťanů na přelomu 14. a 15. století = Die Handelskontakte der Prager Bürger in der Zeit um 1400
Musílek, Martin
The presented text explores the trade contacts between Prague and Bern, and other cities of the Swiss confederation. Precious metal was chiefly exported from the Czech Lands to the Swiss cantons and Swabia, whether in the form of minted silver coins or raw precious metal. Trade was mediated through Nuremberg merchants. The concrete case of several Prague burghers-merchants exemplifies their status in the city, their financial backgrounds, and the mercantile and monetary contacts that were often linked up with foreign commerce houses, the ruling court milieu or the credit possibilities of the Prague Jews. Although during the Hussite Wars (1419–1434), trade with the heretical Bohemia was restricted, the Imperial and Papal trade embargo was frequently bypassed. In the course of the Hussite Wars, a new wave of exportation of Bohemian art objects abroad took place in connection with the emigration of Catholics, where these objects were either sold or deposited by the refugees “for better times”. Thus, the exportation of Bohemian art abroad did not cease even during the Hussite Wars.

Úplný záznam
2019-01-07
14:42
Logos liberální demokracie?
Brabec, Martin
Práce ukazuje, že ačkoliv se často liberální demokracie prezentuje a obhajuje jako harmonicky skloubený celek, v její podstatě se nachází zásadní rozpor, běžně přehlížený. Tuto kontradikci nalezneme mezi principem demokratickým, který klade důraz na kolektivní rozhodování a principem liberálním, který staví na individuálních právech a osobním rozhodování. Právě neporozumění tomuto rozdílu vede ke směšování demokracie s liberální demokracií.

Úplný záznam
2018-07-30
11:02
Dominikáni v Klatovech a duchovní atmosféra na sklonku středověku
Jindráček, Efrem
The Dominican Convent (founded 1267/1290) formed together with the Hospital of The Holy Spirit (1289) of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, two religious institutions that enriched the religious and cultural life of Klatovy in a completely different way. In the Late of the Middle Ages, when a big part of Europe was affected by the Black Death, the plague epidemy (1347-1363) and the Papal schism (1383-1417), the Dominican Order was in serious crises (1350-1417), not only in the religious discipline, but also in the overall decline of studies, we can say – according to the conserved documents – that the Dominican community in Klatovy has done quite well, perhaps very well. Until the 15th century, it enjoyed the admiration of local benefactors, burghers and influential nobility, provably developed a sermon and study, its members found among bishops, papal chaplains, inquisitors and professors of theology. The later non-conformist attitudes towards the Hussitism and long-term survival in an organized exile phase along with the catholic minority from Klatovy, even after the destruction of the proper convent (1419), show a considerable Dominican identity and the determination of its members.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
A general framework for logics of questions
Punčochář, Vít
This paper provides an overview of basic inquisitive semantics and its generalization proposed in (Punčochář, submitted). It is shown that the generalization allows to model questions over any of a large class of non-classical logics and so avoids paradoxes of material implication and irrelevance in the logic of questions. Moreover, it is advocated that the general framework does not lose any of the characteristic features of basic inquisitive semantics that are needed for modeling of questions.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Substructural logics for pooling information
Sedlár, Igor ; Punčochář, Vít
This paper puts forward a generalization of the account of pooling information – offered by standard epistemic logic – based on intersection of sets of possible worlds. Our account is based on information models for substructural logics and pooling is represented by fusion of information states. This approach yields a representation of\npooling related to structured communication within groups of agents. It is shown that the generalized account avoids some problematic features of the intersection-based approach. Our main technical result is a sound and complete axiomatization of a substructural epistemic logic with an operator expressing pooling.\n

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:20
Knowledge is a Diamond
Punčochář, Vít
In the standard epistemic logic, the knowledge operator is represented as a box operator, a universal quantifier over a set of possible worlds. There is an alternative approach to the semantics of knowledge, according to which an agent a knows a proposition iff a has a reliable (e.g. sensory) evidence that supports the proposition. In this interpretation, knowledge is viewed rather as an existential, i.e. a diamond modality. In this paper, we will propose a formal semantics for substructural logics that allows to model knowledge on the basis of this intuition. The framework is strongly motivated by a similar semantics introduced by (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). However, as we will argue, our framework overcomes some unintuitive features of the semantics from (Bílková, Majer, Peliš, 2016). Most importantly, knowledge does not distribute over disjunction in our logic.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:19
The Development in the Czech Republic. Barriers and Opportunities
Machleidt, Petr ; Mráček, K.
The paper deals with the situation of Technology Assessment in the Czech Republic. There is a well-developed theoretical basis of TA but a relatively weak TA practice. We are lacking a broad and concrete institutional lay down of TA, in particular, there is no effective link to relevant legislative activities. The concept of TA can also be viewed as a right tool for research and innovation policy in the Czech Republic. Teaching in the field of TA is also important. The positive acceptance of TA problems by students at the TU Prague shows new opportunities for the establishment of TA in the Czech Republic. The idea of “industry 4.0” is also a great challenge for TA in the Czech Republic.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-09
13:19
Interpretation of Comenius by Jan Patočka in the context of his philosophy of history
Schifferová, Věra
Patočka´s interest in Comenius was motivated by his interest in the philosophy of history. The chapter demonstrates Patočka´s concern with Comenius which resultated from Patočka´s focus on the turn from the Christian man to the man without Christiantiy as well as from his interest in the crisis of the modern man. For Patočka, the spiritual transformation, which is the main of civilisation difficulties of the modern humanity lies in replacing one´s “open soul” with a soul that´s “closed”. Patočka approaches Comenius as a thinker who´s difference from the main ideational trend of the modern age might be enormously inspirational in searching for a new spiritual path, whithout which our current humanity has no chance of leading itself out of the crisis that was brought on it by scinetific and technical civilisation; attention is drawn to the issue “pedagogy of the turn” towards the openness in the Post-European period.

Úplný záznam
2018-03-07
15:28
Nepodmíněný základní příjem. Nástroj proti sociálním nahodilostem
Brabec, Martin
Příspěvek představuje myšlenku Nepodmíněného základního příjmu a ukazuje, jak může přispět ke snížení sociálních dopadů různých druhů nahodilostí ve společnosti. Nejprve jsou prezentovány hlavní rysy NZP a jeho odlišnost od současných podmíněných dávek. Dále je rozebrána morální obhajoba základního příjmu a to v klasické koncepci Thomase Paina i její moderní podobě u Van Parijse. V následné, hlavní části příspěvku, je představeno šest rysů, kterými může přispět základní příjem ke snížení sociálních rizik ve společnosti.

Úplný záznam