Institute of Experimental Medicine

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2019-03-14
15:59
Metodika využití nanovlákenných nosičů a kmenových buněk pro léčbu závažných poškození oka
Zajícová, Alena ; Javorková, Eliška ; Holáň, Vladimír
Metodika popisuje nový léčebný postup pro léčbu závažných poškození očního povrchu ve veterinární medicíně. Postup je založen na kultivaci kmenových buněk a na jejich přenosu pomocí nanovlákenných nosičů na poškozený oční povrch. Metoda je využitelná v případech, kde již jiné dostupné formy léčby nejsou úspěšné.

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2019-01-07
14:42
GENE EXPRESSION AND IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN MICE EXPOSED TO ZnO NANOPARTICLES
Rössner ml., Pavel ; Vrbová, Kristýna ; Strapáčová, S. ; Rössnerová, Andrea ; Ambrož, Antonín ; Brzicová, Táňa ; Líbalová, Helena ; Javorková, Eliška ; Zajícová, Alena ; Holáň, Vladimír ; Kulich, P. ; Večeřa, Zbyněk ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Coufalík, Pavel ; Křůmal, Kamil ; Čapka, Lukáš ; Dočekal, Bohumil ; Šerý, Omar ; Machala, M. ; Topinka, Jan
We analyzed gene expression changes in the lungs and the immunological response in splenocytes of mice exposed by inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles - NP. Adult female ICR mice were treated for three days and three months, respectively. Analysis of differential expression in genes involved in oxidative stress was conducted using quantitative RT-PCR. The potential immunotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of ZnO NP were analyzed by phenotyping and cytokine production by splenocytes after three months exposure. Three days exposure resulted in down-regulation of GCLC, GSR, HMOX-1, NQO-1, NF-kB2, PTGS2 and TXNRD1 mRNA expression, three months exposure increased the expression of these genes. Three months exposure caused a significant decrease in the percentage of granulocytes in the spleen cells, and affected the production of IL-10 and IL-6 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated leukocytes. In summary, our study revealed changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidative stress response following acute ZnO NP exposure. Subchronic ZnO NP exposure induced immunomodulatory effects in the spleen.

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2017-08-18
13:06
L01 DNA damage formation and DNA repair following an intervention of colorectal cell lines with ganoderma lucidum
Vodička, Pavel ; Opattová, Alena ; Čumová, Andrea ; Slíva, D.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in the world and second most common cause of cancer related deaths in Europe. CRC is complex disease that develops as consequence of environmental and health risk factors with involvement of suboptimal DNA repair, resulting in an accumulation of DNA damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules strictly controlled by cellular antioxidant system. Disturbance in the prooxidation–antioxidation homeostasis increases an extent of ROS and consequently an accumulation of DNA damage as well as apoptosis. \nMany natural compounds possess anti-cancer activities tentatively mediated by the generation of ROS. Cancer cells are more sensitive to oxidative DNA damage than non-malignant ones. Modulation of oxidative DNA damage and its repair by natural compounds may lead to selective cancer cell-death and further sensitization of cancer cells to the treatment. Ganoderma Lucidum (GLC) (Reishi, Ling-Zhi), a mushroom used in Chinese medicine for thousands of years, represents an example of a natural compound with empirically recorded anti-cancer as well as anti-proliferative effects. \nThe aim of our study is to define effect of Ganoderma lucidum (GLC) extract on DNA damage and DNA repair system in colorectal cell lines with different genetic backgrounds.\nOur results suggest that GLC extract decreases activity of the cellular antioxidant system which leads to oxidative DNA damage. GLC extract increases genotoxic burden in colorectal cancer cell lines, highlighted by the suppressed base excision repair capacity. These data indicate that specific oxidative DNA damage caused by natural compounds may become a potential tool for the improvement of specific anti-cancer treatment.\n

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2017-08-18
13:06
Vliv přírodních látek na poškození DNA a reparační kapacitu u kolorektálních buněčných linií
Vodenková, Soňa ; Opattová, Alena ; Čumová, Andrea ; Slíva, D. ; Vodička, Pavel
Kolorektální karcinom (CRC) představuje celosvětovou zdravotní zátěž s velmi vysokou incidencí i mortalitou. Problematika CRC se potýká s nedostatkem spolehlivých prediktivních a prognostických biomarkerů, pozdní diagnózou a s poměrně nízkou efektivitou léčby (pouze 50 %). \nCRC je po dlouhá léta konvenčně léčen 5-fluorouracilem (5-FU), který je i v současné době hlavní složkou kombinačních chemoterapeutických režimů. 5-FU, halogenovaný pyrimidin, je buďto přímo inkorporován do DNA nebo způsobuje narušení syntézy thymidinu z uracilu, který je pak chybně inkorporován do DNA. Oprava těchto poškození DNA vyžaduje účast bázově excizní opravy (BER) a systému opravy chybného párování bazí (MMR).\nCílem této studie je sledování účinků 5-FU, GLC a především jejich kombinace na poškození DNA (především oxidační) a na bázově excizní opravu DNA u různých typů buněčných linií kolorektálního karcinomu. \nVýsledky naznačují, že se po přidání jak samotného extraktu z Ganoderma Lucidum, tak jeho kombinace s 5-FU ke kolorektálním liniím, zvyšuje oxidační poškození DNA a nedochází k její reparaci.\nModulace reparační aktivity DNA pomocí přírodních extraktu představuje nový přístup v protinádorové terapii a potenciálně muže pozitivně ovlivňovat rezistenci nádorových buněk k chemoterapeutikům. Použití kombinace GLC a klasické chemoterapie může přispět ke snížení potřebné dávky a následných vedlejších účinků.\n

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2017-08-18
13:06
IL 57 - Sporadic colorectal cancer: From genetic make-up to complex phenotypic measurement, from risk determination to prognostic markers
Vodička, Pavel ; Slyšková, Jana ; Pardini, B. ; Naccarati, A. ; Souček, P. ; Vodičková, Ludmila ; Vymetálková, Veronika ; Svoboda, Miroslav ; Foersti, A. ; Hemminki, K.
Colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC), is a complex process, resulting in both genomic and chromosomal instabilities. The valid theories of carcinogenesis accent either the role of somatic mutation or the surrounding microenvironment, however neither of them explains all features of cancer. Uncontrolled proliferation and genomic instability point to the DNA damage response and repair as to the key players. In the present study, we will overview several biomarkers in mapping heterogeneous complex CRC disease and providing prognostic information.\nVariants in genes involved in important pathways, such as DNA repair, cell cycle control, folate metabolism and methylation, insulin resistance and obesity, ABC transporters, selenoprotein genes, genes involved in inflammatory/immune response have shown various degree of association with CRC risk. We present also the data on mutations in high risk genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Gene expression levels were determined in relevant pathways and complemented with other important parameters (epigenetic regulators of transcription by methylation). Additionally, the role of post-transcriptional regulation via miRNA or lncRNA was investigated in relation to the risk of CRC and the efficacy of chemotherapy. We have discovered several genetic and epigenetic markers affecting independently the prognosis of CRC. Functional DNA repair tests (complex phenotype) have been implemented as markers of individual susceptibility to sporadic CRC and its prognosis.\nAn application of the whole set of various biomarkers is inevitable to define the phenotypic landscape of the disease and to delineate the individual response to the therapy.\n

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2017-07-03
17:28
Natural compounds and their effect on 5-fluorouracil in colorectal cancer cell lines
Čumová, Andrea ; Opattová, Alena ; Vodenková, Soňa ; Horák, Josef ; Slíva, D. ; Vodička, Pavel
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common type of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in Europe. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in treatment of various cancers including CRC, but apart from the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells may also cause adverse toxic side effects. 5-FU is an anti-metabolite with chemical structure similar to that of the pyrimidine molecules of DNA and RNA. However, response to chemotherapy is often limited by drug resistance. The p53 protein is one of the most widely studied tumour suppressors and mutations in TP53 gene are frequently detected in different types of tumours. \nGanoderma Lucidum (GLC) is a mushroom used in Traditional Eastern Medicine which exhibits anti-cancer and anti-proliferative effects in vitro\nThe aim of our study is to define the role of p53 in the interaction between 5-FU and GLC extract and their simultaneous effect on survival in CRC cell lines.\nOur results suggest that GLC extract significantly increases cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of 5-FU in CRC lines with different p53 status and may potentially modulate the response of p53 knock-out cells which are less sensitive to 5-FU treatment. Interaction of conventional chemotherapeutics with natural compounds introduces a novel aspect in cancer research and therapy.\n\n

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2011-07-04
07:48
Modeling of nucleolar self-assembly
Blažíková, Michaela ; Heřman, P. ; Malínský, Jan
Mammalian cell nucleoli disassemble at the beginning of mitosis and reassemble again during telophase and the early G1. Dynamics of this process was studied using a model based on entropy driven self-assembly of pre-ribosomal particles generated in a single biosynthetic source. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that such model can explain formation of a large aggregate, a nucleolus, in the vicinity of the source. We examined influence of nucleoplasm properties on dynamics of the aggregate formation.

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2011-07-01
17:03
Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine
Syková, Eva
Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvase method to study the fate of transplanted cells in vivo. Various biocomatible scaffolds based on non-woven nanofibres (products of ELMARCO or Technical University Liberec), have been developed for bridging tissue defects and for use as 3D stem cell careiers.

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2011-07-01
17:03
NANOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMATERIALS IN MEDICINE
Kubinová, Šárka ; Jendelová, Pavla ; Lesný, Petr ; Holáň, Vladimír ; Syková, Eva
Our studies focus on the use of nanotechnology in cell therapy and tissue engineering for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injury, corneal defects and chronic wounds.

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2011-07-01
16:54
Diffusion properties of the brain in health and disease
Syková, Eva
Diffusion parameters affect neurone-glia communication, ionic homeostasis, the movement and accumulation of neuroactive substances and, therefore, play an important role in synaptic as well as volume transmission.

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