National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Toxic responses in human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to particulate matter exhaust emissions from gasoline and biogasoline
Závodná, Táňa ; Líbalová, Helena ; Vrbová, Kristýna ; Sikorová, Jitka ; Vojtíšek-Lom, M. ; Beránek, V. ; Pechout, M. ; Kléma, J. ; Cigánek, M. ; Machala, M. ; Neča, J. ; Rössner ml., Pavel ; Topinka, Jan
Motor vehicle emissions substantially contribute to air pollution worldwide and cause serious health problems. While the deleterious effects of diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) have been widely studied, much less attention is paid to toxicity of PM emitted by gasoline engines although they also produce considerable amount of PM. The primary objective of this research was to assess toxic potencies of exhaust PM released by conventional gasoline engine fueled with neat gasoline (EU) or gasoline-ethanol blend (15% ethanol, v/v, E15). Despite a similar particle mass (mu g PM/kg fuel) produced by both fuels, PM emitted by E15 contained higher amount of harmful polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as suggested by chemical analysis. To examine the toxicity of organic PM constituents, human lung BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 4h and 24h to a subtoxic dose of E0 and E15 PM organic extracts. We used genome scale transcriptomic analysis to characterize the toxic response and to identify modulated biological process and pathways. Whereas 4h exposure to both PM extracts resulted in modulation of similar genes and pathways related to lipid and steroid metabolism, activation of PPAR alpha, oxidative stress and immune response, 24h exposure was more specific for each extract, although both induced expression of PAH-metabolic enzymes, modulated metabolism of lipids or activated PPAR alpha, E15 additionally deregulated variety of other pathways. Overall, the PM mass produced by both fuels was similar, however, higher PAH content in E15 PM organic extract may have contributed to more extensive toxic response particularly after 24h exposure in BEAS-2B cells.
Use of transcriptomics to study mechanism of the action of complex mixtures of organic compounds occurring in the ambient air focusing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Líbalová, Helena ; Topinka, Jan (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee) ; Postlerová, Pavla (referee)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a large group of organic compounds occuring as pollutants in ambient air. Besides their genotoxic effect, some of them are known to be complete carcinogens and act via nongenotoxic and tumor promoting mechanism. Although effects of many individual compounds are well-documented, human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air occurs through complex mixtures and only few studies describe the behavior of PAH in real complex mixtures. The first part of the thesis is dealing with the global gene expression changes in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL) as a consequence of the effect of complex mixtures containing PAH extracted from the respirable airborne particles PM2.5. These particles were collected in 4 localities in the Czech republic (Ostrava - Bartovice, Ostrava - Poruba, Karviná, Třeboň) differing in the level of the air pollution. Gene expression changes induced by three subtoxic concentrations of organic extracts (EOM - extractable organic matter) from each locality after 24 hour incubation were examined by microarray analysis. Pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database was applied to interpret gene expression data. In each locality we identified several deregulated signaling pathways...
SIZE AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN NANO-TiO2 TOXICITY IN MACROPHAGE-LIKE CELLS
Líbalová, Helena ; Sikorová, Jitka ; Brzicová, Táňa ; Milcová, Alena ; Vrbová, Kristýna ; Pikal, P. ; Topinka, Jan ; Rössner ml., Pavel
A set of NPs consists of 5 variants of anatase and 5 variants of rutile nanoparticles differing in their diameter (from 3 to 165 nm). TiO2 samples were characterized in the powder form and dispersed in water and cell culture media. Three cytotoxicity assays were used: MTS, WST-1, and LDH. For all nanomaterials, three independent repetitions were carried out. \n\nOverall, cytotoxicity of all NPs was low even at the highest concentration of 256 mu g/ml. The viability of cells did not decrease below 60% for WST-1 and MTS assays and 80% for the LDH assay. Besides concentration, crystalline size was identified as the most important cytotoxic factor. Clear nonlinear relationship between crystalline size and cytotoxicity was detected, higher toxicity induced NPs within the size range 20-60 nm. Increased cytotoxicity in given diameter size range would give an answer to inconsistent findings at size and cytotoxicity relationship.
WHOLE-GENOME EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN THP-1 MACROPHAGE-LIKE CELLS EXPOSED TO DIVERSE NANOMATERIALS
Brzicová, Táňa ; Líbalová, Helena ; Vrbová, Kristýna ; Sikorová, Jitka ; Philimonenko, Vlada ; Kléma, J. ; Topinka, Jan ; Rössner ml., Pavel
From the perspective of the immune system, nanomaterials (NMs) represent invading agents. Macrophages are immune cells residing in all organs and tissues as the first line of defense. Interactions of macrophages with NMs can determine the fate of NMs as well as their potential toxic effects. In the present study, we compared toxicity of four different types of NMs [NM-100 (TiO2, 110 nm), NM-110 (ZnO, 20 nm), NM-200 (SiO2, 150 nm) and NM-300K (Ag, 20 nm)], towards THP-1 macrophage-like cells. Cells were incubated with non-cytotoxic concentrations (1-25 mu g/ml) of NMs for 24 hours and microarray technology was used to analyze changes in whole-genome expression. Gene expression profiling revealed a substantially different molecular response following exposure to diverse NMs. While NM-100 did not exert any significant effect on gene expression profile, all other NMs triggered a pro-inflammatory response characterized by an activation of the NF-kappa B transcription factor and induced expression of numerous chemokines and cytokines. NM-110 and NM-300K further modulated processes such as DNA damage response, oxidative and replication stress as well as cell cycle progression and proteasome function. We suppose that genotoxicity of ZnO and Ag NMs leading to DNA damage and alternatively to apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages is probably caused by the extensive intracellular dissolution of these NPs, as confirmed by TEM imaging.
GENE EXPRESSION AND IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN MICE EXPOSED TO ZnO NANOPARTICLES
Rössner ml., Pavel ; Vrbová, Kristýna ; Strapáčová, S. ; Rössnerová, Andrea ; Ambrož, Antonín ; Brzicová, Táňa ; Líbalová, Helena ; Javorková, Eliška ; Zajícová, Alena ; Holáň, Vladimír ; Kulich, P. ; Večeřa, Zbyněk ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Coufalík, Pavel ; Křůmal, Kamil ; Čapka, Lukáš ; Dočekal, Bohumil ; Šerý, Omar ; Machala, M. ; Topinka, Jan
We analyzed gene expression changes in the lungs and the immunological response in splenocytes of mice exposed by inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles - NP. Adult female ICR mice were treated for three days and three months, respectively. Analysis of differential expression in genes involved in oxidative stress was conducted using quantitative RT-PCR. The potential immunotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of ZnO NP were analyzed by phenotyping and cytokine production by splenocytes after three months exposure. Three days exposure resulted in down-regulation of GCLC, GSR, HMOX-1, NQO-1, NF-kB2, PTGS2 and TXNRD1 mRNA expression, three months exposure increased the expression of these genes. Three months exposure caused a significant decrease in the percentage of granulocytes in the spleen cells, and affected the production of IL-10 and IL-6 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated leukocytes. In summary, our study revealed changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidative stress response following acute ZnO NP exposure. Subchronic ZnO NP exposure induced immunomodulatory effects in the spleen.
Use of transcriptomics to study mechanism of the action of complex mixtures of organic compounds occurring in the ambient air focusing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Líbalová, Helena ; Topinka, Jan (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee) ; Postlerová, Pavla (referee)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) represent a large group of organic compounds occuring as pollutants in ambient air. Besides their genotoxic effect, some of them are known to be complete carcinogens and act via nongenotoxic and tumor promoting mechanism. Although effects of many individual compounds are well-documented, human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air occurs through complex mixtures and only few studies describe the behavior of PAH in real complex mixtures. The first part of the thesis is dealing with the global gene expression changes in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL) as a consequence of the effect of complex mixtures containing PAH extracted from the respirable airborne particles PM2.5. These particles were collected in 4 localities in the Czech republic (Ostrava - Bartovice, Ostrava - Poruba, Karviná, Třeboň) differing in the level of the air pollution. Gene expression changes induced by three subtoxic concentrations of organic extracts (EOM - extractable organic matter) from each locality after 24 hour incubation were examined by microarray analysis. Pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database was applied to interpret gene expression data. In each locality we identified several deregulated signaling pathways...

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