National Repository of Grey Literature 193 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Mechanism and Effects of General Anaesthetics
Páchniková, Nina ; Groborz, Ondřej (advisor) ; Hrčka Krausová, Barbora (referee)
General anesthetics are key pharmacological agents that induce a reversible state of unconsciousness and allow surgical procedures to be performed. Despite their widespread use, the exact mechanism of action of general anesthetics remains partially unclear. This work provides a comprehensive review of historical and current theories of anesthetic function, examining general mechanisms of action and relevant target protein receptors including GABAA, glycine and NMDA receptors. It deals with the effects of specific anesthetics, namely etomidate, propofol, ketamine and isoflurane, examines their clinical effects, mechanisms of anesthetic action and interactions with various receptors. The thesis also discusses the implications of these findings, potentially informing future research directions. Key words: Anaesthetic, Pharmacology, Receptors, Review, Hypothesis
Analýza vybraných genových polymorfismů a její význam pro individualizovanou farmakoterapii
This thesis deals with the metabolism of xenobiotics and the fact that it may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms in pharmacogens. In the experimental part, samples of volunteers and patients were tested by several methods of molecular biology detecting these polymorphisms and the results were interpreted and compared on the basis of available studies. Furthermore, the work highlights methods that would lead to successful individualized pharmacotherapy in similar clinical trials.
Medical Herbs in the Czech Republic and their Use Depending on the Contained Active Substances
Casková, Petra ; Soldán, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Říhová, Dagmar (referee)
This thesis is focused on the use of medicinal herbs from the ancient past, starting with the world's earliest history of medicine, through the earliest evidence of the cultivation and use of medicinal herbs in the Czech lands, to their importance in contemporary pharmacology. The main aim is to create a concise, comprehensive overview of the methods of obtaining medicinal plants, including their collection and cultivation, their processing and subsequent possibilities of use. This thesis also includes ways of protecting plant species on the basis of regulations and laws within the European Union and in the Czech Republic. It also introduces individual species of the most commonly cultivated or collected medicinal plants and contains data on production, export and import within the Czech Republic. A list of substances contained in the drug and their effects on the human organism is also included in this thesis. In the next section, the most used medicinal herbs in the Czech Republic are listed, sorted accoding to their effects. The appendix contains a glossary of the most frequently used technical terms related to this subject. The second part of the appendix contains 33 photographs of selected medicinal plants mentioned in this thesis. The conclusion is dedicated to a summary of current trends in...
Legal protection of biotechnological and pharmaceutical inventions
Štric, Dušan ; Dobřichovský, Tomáš (referee) ; Růžička, Michal (referee)
Dušan Štric: Legal Protection of Biotechnological and Pharmaceutical Inventions Charles University, Prague, Law Faculty, Institute of Copyright, Industrial Property and Competition Law Doctoral thesis, 150 pages, 2013 Doctoral thesis "Legal Protection of Biotechnological and Pharmaceutical Inventions" is focused on the analyzing especially the substantial law of the biotechnological and pharmaceutical inventions in Europe with taking into the account the proposed changes at the European union level. In the first part are indictaed specific features of the protection of the patents in the field of pharmacology and biotechnology and as well other technical solutions in the designated area. In the second part author describe area of biotechnology and pharmacology as most important natural sciences in the terms of patetning and modern patent law. Primarly author here operate with most used legal institute and it variations in areas of pharmacology and biotechnology. Specific care is taken in regard of differences, especially with exclusions from patentability. The last part is oriented on the mater of the patent infringement and to addition subsequently author analyse as well exceptions from patent infringement. The main objective of the thesis is present the theme in the sense of the newest knowledge...
Nejnovější přístupy k léčbě Diabetes Mellitus
Hadjiyiangou, Katerina ; Štaud, František (advisor) ; Čečková, Martina (referee)
English abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the best known endocrine disease of the pancreas where the incidence of the affected individuals is increasing rapidly worldwide. It is caused by defects in both the pancreatic islets and in the pancreas to produce enough insulin resulting in impaired glucose homeostasis leading to higher than normal glucose levels in the blood (hyperglycaemia) which is considered to be the hallmark of diabetes. Consequently the main aim of diabetes management is to monitor the glycaemic status. Diabetes mellitus can be subdivided into two classes, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) which is also known as insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which is known as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Management of either type of DM requires a number of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and decreased weight with the intention of improving metabolic control and enhancing the quality of life. Unfortunately, the majority of patients will eventually require administration of antidiabetic drugs. The present study was performed with the intention of reviewing the currently available scientific literature about both types of DM and discuss the current and novel approaches of treatment, thus giving more emphasis on the novel advances. For...
The distribution of medicaments by the nursing sister in the social wealfare institutes
Havlínová, Petra ; Hošťálková, Monika (advisor) ; Marková, Iva (referee)
This bachelor's thesis focuses on the distribution of medication in the social welfare health institution. The objectives of the thesis were to focus on procedures of distributing medication by nurses and to introduce the most frequent complications when distributing the medication in the social care institute. The thesis is composed of two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes social and health care services, a health and social care system, a general pharmacology, medicaments' distribution and the complications during the distribution, and the competency of nurses. The research part concentrates on individual study and describes a methodology of research and its organization. This research was done via survey, and the results are analyzed and discussed. Key words: social service, health service, healt-social care, distribution of medicaments, pharmacology, competence of nursis, complication
Targeting cholinergic system in tretment of Alzheimer's disease.
Golianová, Nikoleta ; Jakubík, Jan (advisor) ; Říčný, Jan (referee)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of CNS and very serious type of dementia. AD affected 46.8 million people worldwide in 2015, and it is estimated that the number of patients will double every 20 years, reaching over 130 million people in 2050 according to Alzheimer's Disease International. There are two forms of the AD: familial (FAD) and sporadic (SAD) form. FAD is an early-onset disease caused by genetic mutations. SAD is more common, a late-onset disease with the age and ε allele of apolipoprotein E as major risk factors. The most crucial symptom is memory disorder, followed by disorientation, confusion, depression and later on, serious psychical and motor-skill problems. These symptoms are the result of a neuronal loss due to formation of β-amyloid oligomers and neurofibrillary tangles in the central nervous system (CNS). As for now, there are neither efficient diagnostic approaches, nor therapeutic ways to stop the degeneration of the brain. There are some drugs available, such as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, that have proven to slow down the progression of the AD. Other cholinergic approaches have been developed, but they have shown a lot of side effects, as they are targeting a large scale of receptors. Additional approaches are focusing on clearance of -...
Structural and pharmacological determinants of NMDA receptor channel gating
Ladislav, Marek ; Krůšek, Jan (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are heterotetramers containing two obligatory glycine-binding (GluN1) and two glutamate/glycine-binding (GluN2/3) subunits. These receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a key role in high order neuronal processes as a learning and formation of memory. It has been shown that dysregulation of NMDARs is involved in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Each receptor is composed of four protomers exhibiting a conserved domain organization. The most distal part to the cell membrane is the amino-terminal domain that is linked to the ligand binding domain (LBD), which is connected to the pore-forming transmembrane domain (TMD) communicating with the intracellular carboxy-terminal domain. LBD and TMD are connected via three polypeptide chains - linkers. Channel opening is the key step in the NMDAR gating that allows the flux of ions across the membrane. The energy of agonist binding-evoked conformational changes is transferred via linkers to M3 helices forming an ion channel. The rearrangement of M3 helices in activated receptor makes the central cavity of the channel accessible. The details of energy transfer are not yet fully characterized, although accurate knowledge of the receptor gating...

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