National Repository of Grey Literature 24 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Development of inhibitors of rhomboid proteases as tools for the study of their biological functions
Tichá, Anežka ; Stříšovský, Kvido (advisor) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee) ; Konvalinka, Jan (referee)
Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases that belong to the evolutionarily widespread rhomboid superfamily. Rhomboids developed a slightly different catalytic mechanism compared to classical serine proteases; they utilise a catalytic dyad (Ser/His) instead of the common triad (Ser/His/Asp), and the rhomboid active site is buried in the membrane. This, coupled with their hydrophobicity, makes them quite difficult to study. Therefore, even though they are known to be involved in several important biological processes it is still not clear how exactly most of them are involved in the regulation of or in the pathologies of diseases related to these processes (such as malaria, Parkinson's disease or cancer). Our understanding is hindered by the lack of tools for their characterisation both in vitro and in vivo. In my thesis I present new fluorogenic substrates based on the LacYTM2 sequence, which is hydrolysed by several different rhomboid proteases. Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based methods, these substrates are suitable for continuous monitoring of rhomboid activity in vitro. Modifications in the P5-P1 residues can improve selectivity for a specific rhomboid, the choice of FRET pair of fluorophores that absorbes light of longer wavelengths makes them suitable for high throughput...
Development of analytical tools for quantification and screening for inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III
Navrátil, Václav ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) usually called prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is membrane bound metallopeptidase expressed mainly in prostate carcinoma (PCa). Agents targeting GCPII suitable for both imaging and treatment of PCa are in development and they show promising results in advanced clinical trials. Some studies showed that GCPII may serve also as PCa blood serum marker, but this has not been validated due to the lack of methods suitable for accurate detection of GCPII in human blood. Moreover, GCPII is also expressed in brain, where it cleaves inhibitory N-acetyl-α-L- aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) to release excitatory L-glutamate and GCPII inhibition has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of several neuropathies. Tight binding inhibitors of GCPII have been identified by rational design, but all have poor bioavailability and thus cannot be used in clinics. Identifying new scaffolds by 'brute force' screening methods is thus essential; however, no such method for GCPII has been developed so far. Glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII) is also expressed in brain and cleaves NAAG. It is thus an important protein for understanding of GCPII function as well as GCPII targeting in medicine. Here, we focused on development of novel methods for quantification of both...
Structure and Function of Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II
Šácha, Pavel ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee)
4 Závěr GCPII je důležitý protein, který hraje roli v mnoha fyziologických i patologických procesech. Proto bylo třeba získat větší množství enzymaticky aktivního proteinu pro jeho další biochemický výzkum. Heterologní expresí v hmyzích buňkách S2 bylo exprimováno a následně purifikováno dostatečné množství velmi čistého a aktivního enzymu. To umožnilo jeho biochemickou charakterizaci, krystalizaci a později vedlo i k vyřešení krystalové struktury. GCPII je aktivní v širokém rozmezí pH 6 - 8, s maximem kolem pH 7,5. Zjistili jsme, že kromě přirozeného substrátu Ac-Asp-Glu GCPII štěpí také acetylované dipeptidy Ac-Asp-Met, Ac-Glu-Met, Ac-Glu-Glu, Ac-Ala-Glu a Ac-Ala-Met. U těchto substrátů byly změřeny kinetické parametry štěpení. Nalezení dalších substrátů může vést k objevení dosud nepopsaných fyziologických rolí GCPII. Také byly porovnány hodnoty IC50 inhibitorů známých z literatury u námi připravené GCPII a GCPII izolované z potkaních mozků. IC50 bylo u všech méně specifických inhibitorů nižší u rekombinantní GCPII než u GCPII izolované z mozků. Rozdíly ve výsledcích vysvětlujeme vazbou méně specifických inhibitorů na jiné proteiny preparátů z mozku. Vůbec nepochybujeme o tom, že data získaná za použití čistého rekombinantního proteinu jsou přesnější než ta, ktará byla získána ze špatně definovaných...
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and Fibroblast activation protein in gliomagenesis.
Trylčová, Jana ; Šedo, Aleksi (advisor) ; Mandys, Václav (referee) ; Mareš, Vladislav (referee)
"Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV Activity and/or Structure Homologues"(DASH) represent a newly defined group of multifunctional molecules, typically bearing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV- like hydrolytic activity. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) cleaves out X-Pro dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptides. Other molecules carrying similar enzyme activity, such as Fibroblast activation protein (FAP), DPP-II, DPP8 and DPP9 or even DPP-IV structure-like but hydrolytically inactive molecules (DPP6 and DPP10) also belong to this group. Recent knowledge suggest a substantial role of DASH in cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study is a preparation of a biological model and its use for understanding the mechanisms of interaction(s) between transformed glial cells and stroma in the processes of origin and development of tumors derived from neuroectoderm. Stable transfected human glioblastoma cell lines with inducible gene expression of DPP-IV, Fibroblast activation protein and their enzymatically inactive mutated forms, were prepared within the project. Prepared cell lines are used as a tool for studying not only the "autocrine" importance of DPP-IV and FAP for the expressing cells in in-vitro, but also for their potential "paracrine" effect(s) within the tumor microenvironment after homotopic implantation into the...
Structure, activity and metabolism of human glutamate carboxypeptidase II
Mlčochová, Petra ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee)
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES Recentry reported crystal sructures of GCpII provide stucturar insight into the organization of the substrate binding cavity and highlight residues implicated in substrate / inhibitor binding in the sI site of the enzyme. To comprement and extend the s[ucturar studies, we constructed a QMzMM model of GCPII in complex with its substrate, N-aceýt. aspartyl-glutamate, which enabled us to pÍedict additional anrino acid residues interacting with the bound subsrate. and used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the contribution of individual residues for substrate ,/ inhibitor binding and enzymatic activity of GCpII. we prepared and characterized 12 GcpJ' mutants targeting the amino acids in the vicinity of substrate./inhibitor binding pockets. The experimental results suggest that residues (especiaily Arg210) in the sť site are critical for substrate./inhibitor binding, whereas the residues forming the sl pocket niight be more important for the .fine-tuning, of GCptr substrate specificity and appear to be relevant for substrate turnover and may play a role in the enzyme's mechanism of action. Even though the QIVýMM calculations of the NAAG binding mode in the GCPII active site enabled us to predict the structure and enzyme-substrate interactions in the sl binding site, the complete...
Posttranslational modifications in soluble recombinant therapeutical proteins secreted by lower aukaryotes: structure and function
Kumar, Vinay ; Bezouška, Karel (advisor) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee) ; Grubhoffer, Libor (referee)
Virtat, Kunnr M.Sc Aint of the stud1, Aim of the studv The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisnrs contributing to the production of soluble leukocyte receptors in the eukaryotic expression systenrs including the proper posttranslational modifications such as disulfide bond fornration and glycosylation. In order to achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been adopted for the study: l, t. To develop new methodologies for rapid and convenient assessnrent ofthe disulfide L I boltds in complex eukaryotic proteins using SDS polyacrylarride electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions, arrd nrass spectrometry. 2. To establish elements that are critical for the stability of soluble CD69 receptors expressed in the bacterial expression systenr 3. To develop methods for the production of glycosylated soluble CD69 proteins in lower eukaryotes (P i c h i a pa s to ri s) 4. To purify the proteins in sufficient quantities for biochemical and inrnrunological studies 5. To investigate, how disulfide bonding and glycosylation influeuces the stability of soluble CD69 receptors 6. To look at the carbohydrate binding activities ofthe produced proteins. 7. To evaluate the in vivo propefties of the produced proteins including their circulation half lifes in the blood of experiental animals, and...

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