National Repository of Grey Literature 178 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The History of Yersinia Pestis in Europe from the Perspective of Ancient DNA
Nováková, Veronika ; Ehler, Edvard (advisor) ; Vojíř, Karel (referee)
je gramnegativní bakterie, která byla na konci devatenáctého století odhalena jako původce moru. je blízce příbuzná , od níž se liší přítomností určitých virulentních faktorů. Právě virulentní faktory umožňují efektivní přežití hmyzích vektoru, kterým je blecha. Blecha poté zajišťuje úspěšný přenos bakterie na obratlovce, což je nejčastěji hlodavec, případně člověk. Bakterie je geneticky vybavena tak, aby unikla imunitnímu systému. Během lidské historie proběhly tři morové pandemie, Justiniánský mor, Černá smrt a moderní pandemie, u všech z nich byla pomocí aDNA z kosterních pozůstatků potvrzena přítomnost . Mor způ době bronzové. Sekvenace aDNA a zdokonalování molekulárních metod při studiu historických pandemií se jeví jako vhodná strategie pro pochopení možných budoucích pandemií. Pomocí aDNA lze zjistit nejen fylogenezi patogenů, ale je možné i sledovat změny genofondu populace napříč historií a jak v migracemi, tak i možnými změnami způsobenými samotným KLÍČOVÁ SLOVA mor, bakterie, migrace, populace, mikrobiologie, starodávná DNA
Antimikrobiální rezistence a její šíření v potravinovém řetězci
Maršová, Nikol
The bachelor thesis deals with the resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents and its subsequent spread in the food chain. It focuses mainly on the resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, in relation to the types of antibiotics according to their chemical structure and their mechanism of action. It describes the basic principles of agents used against viruses, yeasts, fungi and parasites. Characterises the nature of the emergence and mechanisms of resistance. It also discusses the methods used to determine the resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. Describes when resistance of microorganisms began to emerge historically and its occurrence in different sections of the food chain. In relation to the spread of antimicrobial resistance in the food chain, it describes the most serious zoonotic agents today.
Bakteriociny a jejich aplikace v potravinářském a farmaceutickém průmyslu
Tesarčík, David
This bachelor thesis deals with bacteriocins, their current utilisation and potential use in the future at food industry and pharmacy. The first part of the thesis focuses on their general description, their chemical and biological properties,as well as on their ecological importance and synthesis. Than it summarises their distribution to individual classes and subclasses. There are briefly mentioned some representatives of certain classes, together with germs, which produce them,as well as their properties. The second part of thesis deals with utilisation of bacteriosins in the food industy and pharmacy. There are par-ticular examples of bacteriosins yet utilised. Especially in case of food preservation. Next there is a summary of the potential utilisations of these agents in the future. Which are either in the stage of research, testing or theory.
Antibiotická rezistence patogenních bakterií u vybraných druhů zájmových zvířat
Kaliská, Tereza
Some strains of pathogenic bacteria are capable of resistance to antibacterial agents. This resistance makes it difficult to treat diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. The most well-known pathogens of domestic animals, mainly dogs and cats, are mentioned in the context of the bachelor thesis. The thesis highlights the importance of understanding the mechanisms of resistance. It describes mobile elements, the principle of efflux pumps and spontaneous chromosomal mutations. Prevention should be the basis for preventing resistance from spreading further in the population. The observance of good hygiene habits, the appropriate use of antibiotics in the correct dosage and legislative adjustments on agricultural farms should be implemented on a global scale. The development of antimicrobial substances, including chemotherapeutics, should continue. At the same time, more empha-sis should be placed on the search for new alternatives. Mainly plant phytobiotics look promising.
Bacteria in the lichen symbiosis
Moťková, Eliška ; Steinová, Jana (advisor) ; Peksa, Ondřej (referee)
This thesis summarizes the most recent research on bacteria in lichen symbiosis. Lichen symbiosis and the partners participating in it are described in the first part of the thesis. The emphasis is mainly on the different functions that bacteria can have in lichen symbiosis. These functions include, for example, the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, the production of cobalamin, essential for the growth of some algae, the secretion of antimicrobial substances and the recycling of nutrients contained in old parts of the litter. The main groups of bacteria that occur in the lichen symbiosis are also discussed, along with the factors that influence their occurrence. The most abundant group of bacteria in lichens are the Alphaproteobacteria. Their abundance in lichens is probably influenced by the frequent occurrence of these bacteria in the substrate on which the lichen grows. Other abundant groups of bacteria in lichens are representatives of Firmicutes, actinobacteria or acidobacteria. All important groups of bacteria are acquired by lichens through both vertical transfer and horizontal transfer. Key words: Alphaproteobacteria, nitrogen fixation, antagonistic activity, microbiota, biofilm
Development of mycorrhizal communities in primary succession
Mádle, Jan ; Kohout, Petr (advisor) ; Ponert, Jan (referee)
Primary succession is the process of ecosystem development that takes place in sites that were not suitable for colonization by plants and organisms dependent on them. These sites arise either naturally, for example after a volcanic eruption or glacial retreat, or anthropogenically, for example by strip mining. During primary succession, plants colonise the bare substrate and gradually modify its abiotic and biotic conditions. During primary succession, interactions between plants and the soil microbiome, especially with fungi and bacteria, occur. Plants and soil microorganisms influence each other's growth and development through various interactions. Plants, or rather their roots, form a specific niche for a wide range of soil microbial communities. Through their roots, plants provide a wide range of substances, organic acids, sugars, amino acids and other often carbon-rich compounds that can serve as a substrate for microorganisms. Plants are able to do this by producing litter, root exudates, and translocation of sugars for symbiotic fungi and bacteria. Soil microorganisms contri- bute to the release of nutrients and the decomposition of organic materials that would otherwise be unavailable to plants. Many soil microorganisms can form a symbiotic relationship with the plant; this relationship may be...
Detail analysis on antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes and horizontal gene transfer traits in anaerobic bacteria
Vancová, Kateřina ; Schwarzerová, Jana (referee) ; Čejková, Darina (advisor)
This thesis deals with a detail analysis on antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes and horizontal gene transfer traits in anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a growing threat to public health globally. In these bacteria, AMR genes are often associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which promote their mobility, enabling them to rapidly spread throughout a bacterial community. The work describes the horizontal gene transfer, the issue of antimicrobial resistance and the database for the detection of AMR genes and MGEs. After that, the detection and analysis of AMR genes and MGEs in anaerobic bacteria was done. Almost half of them contained at least 1 gene coding for antibiotic or heavy-metal resistance, 112 different genes overall. Then, 66 different MGEs were detected, 4 of which carried 6 different AMR detected genes.
Detail analysis on antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes and horizontal gene transfer traits in anaerobic bacteria
Vancová, Kateřina ; Schwarzerová, Jana (referee) ; Čejková, Darina (advisor)
This thesis deals with a detail analysis on antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes and horizontal gene transfer traits in anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a growing threat to public health globally. In these bacteria, AMR genes are often associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which promote their mobility, enabling them to rapidly spread throughout a bacterial community. The work describes the horizontal gene transfer, the issue of antimicrobial resistance and the database for the detection of AMR genes and MGEs. After that, the detection and analysis of AMR genes and MGEs in anaerobic bacteria was done. Almost half of them contained at least 1 gene coding for antibiotic or heavy-metal resistance, 112 different genes overall. Then, 66 different MGEs were detected, 4 of which carried 6 different AMR detected genes.
Impact of selected emulsifiers and different emulsification methods on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
KOLDOVÁ, Kamila
The main topic of this bachelor's thesis is to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of selected types of emulsifiers and plant extracts on the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The thesis also examines the effect of selected emulsifiers and their methods of emulsification on emulsion stability. The theoretical part provides basic information about the bacteria used, their morphological characteristics, pathogenesis, and the diseases they cause. It also describes emulsifiers and their general characteristics, including emulsion stability. The final theoretical part of the thesis focuses on plant extracts, their properties, and their applications. The methodology section of this thesis illustrates the procedures for preparing emulsifiers and plant extracts, as well as determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations. These determinations were performed in a 96-well microtiter plate and measured spectrophotometrically. The method for preparing emulsion stability was conducted in glass test tubes, Eppendorf tubes, and centrifuge tubes. Based on these methodts, the stability of emulsion of Mueller-Hinton broth and sugar solution was determined. The results of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration were processed into tables and evaluated. Emulsion stability was processed and evaluated using obtained photographs.
Coproduction of polyhydroxyalkanoates and violacein employing members of the genus Janthinobacterium
Uhrová, Kateřina ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This bachelor's thesis deals with the study of appropriate conditions for the cultivation of bacteria of selected genera Janthinobacterium, specifically strains CCM 160 and CCM 1888 and the genus Iodobacter fluviatilis strain CCM 3308 from the Czech collection of microorganisms. The most suitable conditions for bacterial growth were investigated. The aim was to identify ideal production medium, cultivation volume, temperature and conditions in the form of submerged and static cultivation. At the same time, one of the strains used was chosed, which appeared to be the best producer of metabolites. Production of the purple pigment violacein and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was observed during the cultivations. Violacein was extracted using methanol and the concentration of the produced violacein content was measured using UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The PHA content was determined using gas chromatography. The obtained data were compared with each other and it was determined whether the production of both metabolites is mutally affected. Furthermore, cultivation on a solid carrier was carried out, which proved more effective in the production of violacein than in a liquid medium. This type of cultivation could in the future lead to the commercial production of violacein, which has a number of positive properties. The 16S rRNA and phaC genes were detected using the multiplex PCR method.

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