National Repository of Grey Literature 114 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Freedom of speech and its theoretical aspects in case law (the US Supreme Court, European Court of Human Rights, the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Administrative Court
Holubová, Eliška ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kysela, Jan (referee)
FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND ITS THEORETICAL ASPECTS IN CASE LAW (of the Supreme Court of the United States, the European Court of Human Rights, the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Administrative Court) ABSTRACT: The diploma thesis titled " Freedom of expression and its theoretical aspects in case law" is focused on the analysis of the editorial cartoon on the comparative field of court decisions. The thesis is composed of chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of freedom of expression. The general part (chapters II-IV) of the thesis deals with the theoretical view on the concept of freedom of expression, its historical and philosophical sources, as well as legal and judicial limits. Last but not least, it also explores the concept and functions of editorial cartoon as a satirical genre. If we take closer look, Chapter II looks at the freedom of expression from theoretical point of view providing historical and philosophical context, whereas Chapter III focuses on free speech limits in legal framework and case law. Chapter IV invites to basic journalistic background of editorial cartoon describing history, importance and principles of drawing satirical pictures. The special part of the thesis (chapters V-VIII) examines Czech, European and American judgments. A key objective is to analyze...
Discrimination on grounds of sex and legal limits
Pukovcová, Kateřina ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Wintr, Jan (referee)
SEX DISCRIMINATION AND THE LIMITS OF LAW The thesis deals with sex discrimination from a theoretical point of view, it does not offer simple answers, but tries to bring proposals to improve current inconvenient estate of treatment of men and women, which can't be considered to be equal. Generally equality is one of the basic values in society, but it is difficult and is failed to fulfill this principle. The main reason is that people follow prejudices and can't get over them. Formal equality of men and women before the law was reached, but factual inequalities persist. That is why a special effort is justifiable and essential to enforce equal treatment. Level of achieved equality indicates progressivism of a country and standard of living generally. If, in case of women, more than half of a population is out of impact, sources and human dignity, democracy is not perfect and faultless. Therefore it is necessary to find and eradicate the latent barriers, change people's attitude and get the prejudices out of their minds. The thesis consists of four main chapters. First chapter concerns terms equality and discrimination and shows their uncertainty, describes various conceptions of equality and direct and indirect discrimination. Second chapter explains necessity of enforcement of equal treatment with men and...
The duty to prevent damages and its impact in individual legal regimes
Klein, Šimon ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Beran, Karel (referee)
Duty to prevent damage and its effects in particular legal branches Abstract: The purpose of my thesis is to analyse the duty to prevent damage in the context czech of legal system, to prove that prevention is integral to the system of civil liability and examine special consequences of this duty outside the scope of civil law, i.e. in criminal and administrative law. The reason for my research is increasing importance of revention in modern legal discourse. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of the principle of prevention and its development. Chapter One is introductory, analyses and defines the phenomenon of prevention in the civil law. The chapter is subdivided into four parts. Part one briefly describes the emphasis on the prevention in civil liability by the law and economics. Part two analyses the principle of neminem laedere and its importance within the principle of prevention. Part three draws conclusions from the preceeding parts and defines the duty to prevent damage in the civil law. Part four then describes who might be the subject of such a duty. Chapter Two examines the development of the principle of prevention within the czech legal system and examples of relevant case law. It is subdivided into four parts, examining succesive civil codes...
Reasoning in the judgements of European courts
Vilímková, Veronika ; Tomášek, Michal (advisor) ; Kühn, Zdeněk (referee)
This thesis concerns the topic of legal reasoning in the judgements of European courts. The first part of the paper presents the analysis of the theoretical aspects of legal reasoning, specifically the legal obligation for this practice, as well as an examination of the origins and arguments for the existence of this obligation. Furthermore, the way that the legal reasonings are embedded in the law of the Czech Republic, and in EU legislation, is discussed and examined in detail. The final part of the paper consists of a comparison of legal reasonings of the Czech courts and the European Court of Justice. The relevant aspects of the legal reasoning are explained with regard to the practice of two European courts: European Court of Justice and Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic, respectively.
The proportionality of punishment with regard to the wealth of the offender
Drápal, Jakub ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
The proportionality of punishment with regard to the wealth of an offender Master's Thesis Jakub Drápal Summary This thesis's main question is whether or not pecuniary punishments should be proportionate to the wealth of an offender. In the beginning the philosophical aspects and opinions of Law and Economics are examined. Jurisprudence of Czech Constitutional Court is discussed as administrative and penal law with their respective jurisdictions, Supreme Court, Supreme Administrative Court and Constitutional Court. Private and supranational law is also considered. The practical part of the thesis is composed of an analysis of the way how are pecuniary punishments in the form of day fines set at two Czech courts. The outcome is that the concept of day fines is not applied in the Czech Republic and is not accepted by the judges. Even though richer offenders get higher sentences than the poorer ones, in proportion to the punishment the richer receive much lesser sentence. To sum-up the findings, it is not possible today to give a unequivocal answer to the key question, whether pecuniary punishment should be proportionate to the wealth of an offender. It is possible in several areas of law, as it is possible to often choose, whether or not it is effective. General and abstract question however has to be left...
Obstacles to effectiveness of law
Baňouch, Hynek ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Kühn, Zdeněk (referee) ; Večeřa, Miloš (referee)
217 SUMMARY H. BAŇOUCH: PŘEKÁŽKY EFEKTIVNOSTI PRÁVA. DISERTACE. PRF UK V PRAZE Summary The dissertation thesis Obstacles to effectiveness of law points out to the phenomena, processes and approaches which diminish social effectiveness of law. Effectiveness of law is presented in its legal theoretical as well as economical and sociological form. The author does not give priority to any model of effectiveness, but rather examines advantages and weak points of each model while concurrently keeping a considerable distance from economic ideologization of law. Effectiveness studies, however, should always pursue real effect of law and, plainly speaking, they strive to trace the difference between law in books and law in action. As follows from the analysis of abstract effectiveness, effectiveness of law should be seen as a whole, because focus on partial results can diminish the overall effectiveness. Cost effectiveness is not able to produce a satisfactory outcome because it leaves aside a whole group of goals which cannot be expressed by direct financial income. The reflections are made upon processes which take place in society in transition, i. e. a society which has been undergoing a profound change. The transformation of a European state in the XX and XXI century must be realized by means of law; however,...
The principle of primacy of EU law in the theory and practice of the courts of the European Union Member States
Ondřejková, Jana ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Kühn, Zdeněk (referee) ; Masopust, Zdeněk (referee)
The submitted dissertation thesis analyses the principle of primacy of EU law from the basic point of view of legal theory. It points out different approaches to the primacy principle and examines the arguments on which these approaches are based. The fist part of the thesis deals with the examination of the primacy principle related to its legal basis, using the sources most frequently listed in the literature: the founding treaties, the case law of the Court of Justice, legal theory (Kelsen's basic norm, Hart's rule of recognition and the legal sociology approaches), and international and national law. I have focused on the historical documents (Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community), the concepts based on them (doctrine of the conferred powers and the principle of subsidiarity), and the non-ratified Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe and legally non-binding Declaration No. 17 attached to the Lisbon Treaty. I have applied a critical approach to the argumentation of the Court of Justice in the decisions establishing the principle of primacy: Van Gend en Loos, Costa, Internationale Handelsgesellschaft, Simmenthal. Taking into account the existing objections against the arguments used by the Court of Justice, I have...

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