National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The Balance of the Nitrogen in Agriculture
Klír, Jan ; Beranová, Jana ; Dědina, Martin ; Wollnerová, Jana
Methodology addressing nitrogen balance issues is a suitable tool for verifying the correctness of agricultural management and shows the relation between nitrogen used in agriculture and its losses in gaseous form to air or in the form of nitrates to surface and groundwater. The assessment of nitrogen balance, greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants is closely linked and therefore requires the quantification of nitrogen sources used in agriculture. Synchronization of input data used to evaluate nitrogen flows in agriculture is essential to increasing the methodological level of reporting the nitrogen balance, greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants for the Czech Republic in terms of the requirements of international organizations.
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Storing of manure, treated sludge and feed on agricultural land
Svoboda, Pavel ; Wollnerová, Jana ; Kozlovská, Lada ; Klír, Jan
Solid manure of various livestock, compost and, more recently, digestate separates may be deposited on agricultural land under certain conditions. The rules for their imposition are laid down by legislation. The methods of storing treated sludge and voluminous fodder, such as silage and hay, and the operation of feeding grounds on agricultural land are also determined by current legislation. Of the mineral fertilizers, it is possible to deposit on agricultural land only the calcium fertilizer (sugar bowl, fertilizers based on ground limestone). The methodology responds to the changes in legislation in 2020 and 2021, is based, among other things, on agricultural practice and provides comprehensive guidance for storing these materials and operating feeding grounds on agricultural land. It clearly describes all measures aimed at maintaining the quality of the material stored and reducing the risk of environmental pollution, in particular surface water and groundwater. It also recommends the possibility of reclamation after delivery of fertilizers, treated sludge, removal of feed and closure of the feeding grounds. Particular attention shall be paid to measures addressing the potential of sites in vulnerable areas identified under the Nitrates Directive Action Programme. Last but not least, the methodology also includes instructions for selecting a suitable place to store fertilisers, treated sludge and voluminous feed, or a place to feed, using data from the Land Register (LPIS) at the Farmer's Portal.
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Benefits and risks of nitrogen fertilizers for support of straw decomposition
Mühlbachová, Gabriela ; Růžek, Pavel ; Kusá, Helena ; Vavera, Radek ; Káš, Martin ; Watzlová, Elizaveta
The methodology evaluates the benefits and risks of generally used nitrogen application to support cereal straw decomposition. The possibilities of reduction of the commonly recommended nitrogen doses were verified. The appropriate fertilization manners are suggested with regard to nutrient availability for following crops including optimal N doses in cases when the N supply is necessary. The recommendations represent the result of field trials in different soil-climatic conditions and also on farms, where different nitrogen fertilizers have been applied to winter wheat straw. The results showed that depending on the weather, the fertilization with nitrogen in the summer and autumn period decomposes 30-50% of the straw in the given year, and without fertilizing then 25-30%. Based on the obtained results, there is recommended to reduce fertilization with nitrogen mineral fertilizers to 4-5 kg N/t of straw If the following crop id the oilseed rape or intercrop with higher nitrogen nutrition demands, there is possible to increase N dose to 6-10 kg N/t straw. This recommendation is related also on liquid manure and organic fertilizers containing nitrogen also in organic form. Lower doses of above mentioned range are recommended if no following crop is sown, higher does if possible to apply before sowing of winter crops or intercrops. Overall straw decomposition was higher after application of fertilizers on straw leaved 3 weeks on soil surface. Straw on soil surface reduces water losses from soil and warming in warm summer period, which improves water, carbon and nutrient retention in a soil.
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Methodology for the detection of fungal allergens from air with a focus on the genus Alternaria
Palicová, Jana ; Dumalasová, Veronika ; Zelba, Ondřej ; Hanzalová, Alena ; Trávníčková, Martina ; Chrpová, Jana
The aim of the methodology was to develop and describe a new procedure for air sampling for the analysis of microscopic filamentous fungi (micromycetes, in layman's terms moulds) in outdoor and indoor environments with a focus on the allergenic genus Alternaria. The methodology also includes a procedure for the preparation of samples for molecular detection of representatives of the genus Alternaria and the allergen Alt a 1.
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Invasive pest species in fruit crops in the Czech Republic
Holý, Kamil ; Stará, Jitka ; Kocourek, František ; Ouředníčková, Jana ; Skalský, Michal ; Pultar, Oldřich
The publication summarizes the basic information about invasive pest species in fruit orchards, spreading to our country since 2000. Information about morphology, similar species, area of origin, distribution in Europe and Czechia, risk of introduction, life cycle, host plants, methods of monitoring and control, are provided for each pest species.
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Cultivation of stone fruits in the conditions of occurrence of the causal agents of cork necrosis and premature death of apricots and peaches in production orchards
Pánková, Iveta ; Krejzar, Václav ; Krejzarová, Radka
The methodology monitors the vegetation season in the orchards of stone fruits with regard to the possible influence of performed agrotechnical measurements on the occurrence of the pests, especially bacterial causal agents from the complex Pseudomonas syringae (Ps), Ps. pv. syringae and Ps. pv. morsprunorum races 1. and 3. Regulation of bacterial pathogens is becoming increasingly difficult due to the current possibilities of fruit tree protection, the range of cultivated genotypes and the complex life cycle of pathogens. Manifestations of the disease vary in individual growing seasons depending on the weather. However, the effects and severity of the disease are cumulative. Caring for the health of the tree begins with the production of nursery sprouts and must continue throughout the life of the tree. The methodology describes the individual standard agrotechnical measurements in production orchards in the context of the pathogen life cycle. Based on the results of the project, possible labor and economically acceptable modifications of agricultural practices including timing are proposed in order to reduce the inoculum of cork necrosis agents and reduce economic losses due to premature death of apricot trees.
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A method for identification of foreign amylases in honey
Erban, Tomáš ; Shcherbachenko, Elena ; Talacko, Pavel ; Harant, Karel
Honey is a unique natural product. Honey has been used as a sweet and delicious foodstuff since ancient times. However, it is also valued for its multifaceted currative properties. Unfortunately, honey is one of the most adulterated foods. Nothing may be added to or modified from the honey. Honey also needs to be handled with care. Honey quality can negatively be affected by the way of processing such as heating and storage. Despite great progress in analytical methods, it is not possible to prove all adulterated honeys. Some methods of adulteration are quite sophisticated. Therefore, it is necessary find new approaches and methods for identification of honey adulteration. To be sold, honey must comply with internationally valid standards, which are also valid at national levels with possible minor modifications. One of the important parameters for honey is the level of diastase or amylase enzyme activity, which is a recognized indicator of the freshness and quality of honey. Lower diastase activity below the established level may indicate old honey, but it may also be the result of careless handling of honey. Last but not least, diastase activity may be reduced due to adulteration of honey such as its dilution with sugar substitutes. It is possible that amylase activity can be artificially adjusted by the addition of enzymes. Honey adulterated by the artificially added amylase meets the legislative requirements for placing honey on the market, but this violates the rules laid down by law. The methods used so far have not made it possible to prove this way of honey adulteration. Therefore, this methodology focuses on the identification of foreign amylases that may occur in honey. The methodology enables to identify practically any foreign amylase in honey by bottom-up shotgun proteomic approach. Based on the obtained results with specific peptides can be further used for the development of a targeted method for the identification of foreign amylases.
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On farm conservation of obsolete cultivars and landraces methodology
Holubec, Vojtěch ; Janovská, Dagmar ; Papoušková, Ludmila
This methodology defines basic terminology connected to on-farm conservation, presents links to international agreements and legal documents and describes its participants. There are presented possible practices of conservation based on experience in Europe, especially ECPGR, FAO and international projects focused on this topic. It proposes the system of on-farm conservation in the conditions of the Czech Republic as well as possibilities of its integration to international/European networks.
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Methodology of cryoconservation of in vitro cultures of fruit trees
Bilavčík, Alois ; Faltus, Miloš ; Zámečník, Jiří
The purpose of the methodology is to store selected genotypes of fruit trees, especially apple and pear trees, in conditions of cryogenic temperatures within the National Program. The newly created methodology will enable efficient and effective cryopreservation of genetic resources of selected fruit trees. The methodology brings newly defined encapsulation dehydration procedures of cryopreservation optimized using the thermal method of differential scanning calorimetry.
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