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The Balance of the Nitrogen in Agriculture
Klír, Jan ; Beranová, Jana ; Dědina, Martin ; Wollnerová, Jana
Methodology addressing nitrogen balance issues is a suitable tool for verifying the correctness of agricultural management and shows the relation between nitrogen used in agriculture and its losses in gaseous form to air or in the form of nitrates to surface and groundwater. The assessment of nitrogen balance, greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants is closely linked and therefore requires the quantification of nitrogen sources used in agriculture. Synchronization of input data used to evaluate nitrogen flows in agriculture is essential to increasing the methodological level of reporting the nitrogen balance, greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants for the Czech Republic in terms of the requirements of international organizations.
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Růst Mycobacterium smegmatis na agarovém médiu a agarovém médiu pokrytém celofánovou folií - morfologická a proteomová studie
Ramaniuk, Volha ; Weiser, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
Biofilm formation is one of the most common bacterial survival strategies. Majority of bacterial species are able to form these three-dimensional structures, including pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Representatives of Mycobacterium genus widely occur in the nature, although they can cause serious problems when they appear in medical equipment and artificial replacements of the human body. Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 was used as a model organism in our experiments. We investigated morphology of the three- and six-day-old colonies (in fact biofilms) on agar and agar covered with cellophane using Stereo microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope. We found that a type of surface as well as a carbon source has a great influence on the morphology of the M. smegmatis colonies. We isolated proteomes from the agar and cellophane cultures and from planktonic culture. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used as the main proteomic method. Proteomic data were analyzed using PDQuest software. Then the sets of proteins detected by qualitative and quantitative analyses were compared using Venn diagrams. As a result, we recognized 7 unique proteins that might be specific for recognition and adhesion of bacteria to the cellophane, no unique protein in agar proteome and 46 unique...
The delta subunit of RNA polymerase from gram positive bacteria
Matějčková, Jitka ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
1 Abstrakt Aby bakteriální buňka přežila neustále se měnící podmínky, musí se na ně adaptovat. Tato adaptace je podmíněna změnou genové exprese. Klíčovým krokem genové exprese je transkripce. Hlavním enzymem bakteriální transkripce je RNA polymerasa (RNAP), což je esenciální vícepodjednotkový enzym. RNAP je nejvíce prostudována u Escherichia coli, modelového organismu gram negativních bakterií. Porovnala jsem E. coli a Bacillus subtilis (zástupce gram pozitivních bakterií) a shrnula jsem rozdíly v RNAP a transkripci. Jejich RNA polymerasy se liší přítomností podjednotky δ u gram pozitivních bakterií. Tato podjednotka zvyšuje promotorovou selektivitu, recykluje jádro RNAP a celkově stimuluje syntézu RNA. Podjednotka δ ovlivňuje sporulaci a virulenci některých bakterií. V této práci jsem shromáždila současné poznatky o jednotlivých částech genové exprese, zejména o regulaci iniciace transkripce a o podjednotce δ RNAP.
Non-conventional bacterial signaling pathways
Krupička, Jiří ; Branny, Pavel (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
Two component systems were traditionally considered as main phosphorylation systems of bacteria involved in cell signalling. Recently, attention focuses increasingly on bacterial eukaryote-like Ser/Thr protein kinases (eSTKs). These protein kinases are structurally similar to their eukaryotic counterparts. Some eSTKs possess additional domains such as extracellular PASTA domains that were discovered in a variety of gram-positive bacteria. It has been proved that these domains can act as sensors for unlinked peptidoglycan fragments. However, majority of environmental signal molecules still remains unknown. eSTKs phosphorylate a broad spectrum of substrates including proteins involved in various cell processes such as virulence, cell wall biosynthesis, cell division, and central and secondary metabolism. Cross talk between eSTKs and two component systems also occurs. In this thesis, the current knowledge about eSTKs and their significant substrates in different bacterial species is discussed.
Bacterial adhesion to surfaces
Budil, Jakub ; Beranová, Jana (advisor) ; Kuthan, Martin (referee)
Bacterial adhesion is a process of attachment of a planktonic cell to the surface and the necessary step for further biofilm formation. Most bacterial species are capable of biofilm formation. Bacteria within biofilm exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics and other external factors, which makes the eradication of adhered bacteria rather difficult. Bacterial adhesion is very complex process affected by many physical and chemical factors as well as by the adhesive molecules present on the substrate and cell surface. Accurate description of these factors enables to design appropriate modifications of both the substrate and the environment with the aim to fabricate the antiadhesive and antibacterial surfaces or to increase the efficiency in bacteria-based biotechnological processes. Whereas in medical applications the main goal is to decrease bacterial adhesion, the increased adhesion is desirable in certain processes employing bacteria, as is for example the wastewater treatment. This thesis reviews main theories used for prediction of bacterial adhesion, describes the process of adhesion and physical, chemical and biological factors that influence it. It also contains an overview of antiadhesive and antibacterial surfaces. Key words: Bacteria, adhesion, pili, flagellum, antiadhesive and...
Nanoparticles for gene editing
Kružíková, Zuzana ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
Early DNA-based therapies were tested for therapeutic applications, but they sooner or later revealed multiple hurdles and risks preventing their use in further clinical trials. Recently, they have been replaced by rapidly evolving gene editing using programmed nucleases capable of precise genome modifications by cleaving specific DNA sequences. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR/Cas9 system are currently under investigation as potential therapeutics. However, their off-target effects must be controlled. Targeted delivery of nucleases in a form of mRNA seems as the most promising method. Various types of nanoparticles enable mRNA transfer and could be used to facilitate the nuclease application. Some of these nanoparticles together with characterization of the programmed nucleases are described in this thesis.
Interaction of Borrelia sp. with HL-60 cells and monocytes and cultivation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in HL-60 cell culture
Marková, Lucie ; Hulínská, Dagmar (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are causative agents of Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Their common vector in Europe are the ticks from the genus Ixodes. In our work, we focused on interaction of innate immune cells with the causative agent of Lyme diseases, that are insubstitutable in their function in the early phase of the disease. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is hard to cultivate, the only possibility is to cultivate it in cell cultures. Successful cultivation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum acquired from patients in our geographic area is crucial for following experiments and for diagnostics too. In our experiments, we used validated cell cultures of HL-60 cells, canine monocytes DH82 and murine monocytes P388D1. During our studies of interaction of the causative agent of Lyme diseases with cells, we used two strains of different species Borrelia. Borrelia garinii M192 and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto B31. These strains vary in virulence. The strain M192 is virulent, but the strain B31 lost its virulence by passages. We specialised in study of morphological changes using light microscopy (observation of dyed and fixed preparates and observation in dark field), eventually by transmision electron microscopy. During our experiments, we concluded that HL-60...

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See also: similar author names
1 Beranová, J.
2 Beranová, Jana,
4 Beranová, Jaroslava
6 Beranová, Jitka
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