Národní úložiště šedé literatury Nalezeno 11 záznamů.  1 - 10další  přejít na záznam: Hledání trvalo 0.00 vteřin. 
Biochemical methods as tool for study of reproductive proteins
Postlerová, Pavla ; Zigo, Michal ; Pohlová, Alžběta ; Jonáková, Věra
Study of molecular mechanisms in reproduction is essential for the understanding of this outstanding process. Our lab studies proteins secreted by reproductive organs and sperm using various biochemical methods for a long time. We have expertise in protein extraction from spermatic cells using different approaches, and by kits for proteins from the sperm surface and distinct subcellular compartments. The proteins of reproductive organ fluids are separated by chromatographic methods, such as size exclusion chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography with reverse phase (RP-HPLC) and affinity chromatography on matrices with various ligands. Proteins are subjected to SDS- or 2D-electrophoresis for their characterization and comparison of various extraction methods, different mammalian species, and sperm in different functional development. Electrophoretically separated proteins may be transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane (Western blot) for antibody detection or binding studies with lectin-labelled ligands (lectins, polysaccharides, zona pellucida glycoproteins). We use immunoprecipitation method with specific antibody for protein determination followed by the MALDI identification. Proteins are localized by immunofluorescent techniques on/in spermatic cells and tissue sections of reproductive organs. Isolation of proteins from reproductive tissues and fluids, and the antibody detection is crucial for the studying of reproductive protein origin.
Epididymal maturation – a crucial step in the post-testicular sperm development
Postlerová, Pavla ; Pohlová, Alžběta ; Zigo, Michal ; Jonáková, Věra
Mammalian spermatozoa after their development in testis undergo the post-testicular maturation in epididymis where acquire their fertilization ability and competence of movement. The epididymis is tissue with very active fluid-absorbing and fluid-secreting activity. Epididymal fluid contains ions and small molecules, proteins, glycoproteins and enzymes. The surface of spermatozoa is exposed directly to the epididymal fluid, and the sperm plasma membrane is significantly changed. Some testicular proteins are altered, masked, or replaced by new proteins/glycoproteins of epididymal origin. Several proteins produced by epididymis have been described in various mammalian species and shown to be associated with spermatozoa suggesting a role in the sperm maturation and/or sperm-egg binding and fusion. We isolated proteins from fluid, tissue and sperm of boar epididymis, and separated them by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. We searched for known proteins using panel of antibodies and tested proteins of epididymal fluid for binding abilities. In the epididymis, we found proteins described as proteins of seminal plasma and associated with the sperm surface, such as spermadhesins, beta-microseminoprotein and acrosin inhibitor. These proteins were detected in epididymal sperm, fluid and tissue. We showed that some epididymal proteins may bind the spermatozoa and change the binding sites on the sperm surface. We determined and identified some proteins from boar epididymal fluid with affinity to heparin, hyaluronan and zona pellucida glycoproteins. These phenomena indicate that epididymal fluid proteins bind to the sperm surface during epididymal maturation and might subsequently play role in the sperm capacitation or sperm-zona pellucida binding.
Sperm protein profiles of different mammalian species
Pohlová, Alžběta ; Zigo, Michal ; Jonáková, Věra ; Postlerová, Pavla
Proteins are a substantial equipment of the spermatic cell; therefore, the characterization of sperm proteins is crucial for explanation of molecular mechanisms in the reproduction process. We isolated sperm proteins from different mammalian species - pig, bull, human, mouse, dog and cat. Extracted proteins were separated by SDS-electrophoresis and protein/glycoprotein profiles from epididymal or ejaculated sperm were compared. Additionally, we tested cross-reactivity of antibodies prepared to sperm boar proteins on spermatozoa of other mammalian species using immunofluorescent technique. Our future plan is to compare the protein profiles of sperm during their functional development (epididymal, ejaculated, capacitated) in various mammalian species and identify species-specific sperm proteins with zona pellucida binding activity.
Biochemické motody jako nástroj pro studium proteinů v reprodukci
Postlerová, Pavla ; Zigo, Michal ; Pohlová, Alžběta ; Jonáková, Věra
Studium molekulárních mechanismů rerodukce je důležité pro pochopení tohoto děje. pro extrakci proteinů ze spermií využíváme různé přístupy a specializované kity, které izolují proteiny z různých částí a povrchu spermatické buňky. Proteiny z reprodukčních tekutin dělíme pomocí chromatografických metod. Charakterizaci a porovnání proteinů získaných odlišnými extrakčními metodami nebo proteinů různých savčích druhů a proteinů spermií, které jsou v rozdílných stádiích svého vývoje, provádíme pomocí SDS a 2D elektroforézy. Elektroforeticky separované proteiny přenesené na NC membránu využíváme pro detekci pomocí protilátek nebo k vazebnýcm studiím s biotinem značenými ligandy. Izolace proteinů z reprodukčních tkání a tekutin a jejich detekce pomocí protilátek je nezbytná pro určení původu proteinů reprodukčního traktu. Lokalizace proteinů na povrchu a uvnitř spermatických buněk a v sekreční tkáni reprodukčních orgánů studujeme pomocé imunofluorescenční mikroskopie. Cílená izolace určitých proteinů spermatické buňky, jejich lokalizace na spermiích nebo v tekutinách a tkáních reprodukčního traktu slouží jako nepostradatelné nástroje pro studium molekulárních mechanismů reprodukčního procesu.
Single cell expression analysis of genes with potential mrna gradient in mouse oocytes
Dorosh, Andriy ; Margaryan, Hasmik ; Vodička, Martin ; Ergang, Peter ; Šídová, Monika ; Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina
In frogs, there are clearly visible differently pigmented animal and vegetal poles of the egg determined before fertilization and leading to asymmetrical divisions. Mammalian egg does not show any comparable differentiation and it has been generally accepted that even the individual blastomeres in 2-cell and 4-cell embryos are homogenous. However, recent findings suggest that those blastomeres display different gene expression patterns and might already possess some inclinations to specific cell lineages. We therefore raised a question, whether there could be any mRNA or protein gradients in pre-fertilization oocytes similar to a previously described amphibian egg one. In mammalian eggs, there is a membrane region that is poor in microvilli, cortical granules are absent beneath plasma membrane and sperm cells generally do not bind to this location. This microvilli free region also covers the egg nucleus, and cytoskeleton localization differs markedly to the rest of the cortical space, forming actin –myosin II cortical cap/ring and is considered as animal pole. The purpose of this study was to determine gene products that can be detected at single cell level using qPCR and display gradient like distribution in mature oocytes. We checked expression of 12 selected genes in a pool of 10 oocytes and single mature oocytes. Then, we analysed gene expression in fixed intact oocytes and those undergoing laser capture microdissection procedure (LCMD). Eventually, we have determined six candidate genes for the study of intracellular spatial gene expression in mature mammalian oocytes by subcellular qPCR and in situ hybridization.
Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in testicular cells and sperm
Dostálová, Pavla ; Žatecká, Eva ; Děd, Lukáš ; Dorosh, Andriy ; Postlerová, Pavla ; Jonáková, Věra ; Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina ; Pěknicová, Jana
Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays an important role during sperm development in the male and female reproductive tract. Estrogen signalling is a complex process that depends on cell milieu and presence of receptors. Thanks to the steroid nature of estrogens, they can pass through the plasmatic membrane and bind to the intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs). Within the cell, there are several pools of ERs. One of them is localized to the cell nucleus and their activation leads to direct or indirect binding to DNA and ultimately to alternation in gene expression (genomic pathway). Other pools of ERs are associated with plasma membrane or are located in cytosol. Activation of membrane associated ERs leads to rapid non-genomic responses. Nowadays, two classical estrogen receptors are known – ERα and ERβ. Since ERβ is a predominant variant in testes, we focused our study on expression of ERβ variants in murine testes and sperm. We detected two variants of ERβ at mRNA level in both, testes and sperm. These variants differ in 54 nucleotids within the ligand binding domain and this variability results in different affinity to estrogen. We analyzed individual testicular cell types (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, Sertoli cells) by RT-qPCR. Our results suggest that both ERβ variants are coexpressed in the same cell type and may therefore interact together. This may have consequences in mediating of estrogen signalling. Moreover, ERβ is expressed more in the later stages of spermatogenesis suggesting the role of ERβ in these stages or alternatively in spermatozoa alone. At the protein level, we detected ERβ in nuclear, membrane and cytosolic fraction prepared from testicular tissue suggesting the involvement of both, genomic and non-genomic, pathways of estrogen signaling in testes. In sperm, anti-ERβ antibodies localized ERβ in acrosome region and tail which is in accordance with the known role of estrogen on capacitation, acrosome reaction and motility.
CD46 and β1integrin interaction in mouse sperm head
Šebková, Nataša ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina
CD46 protein plays an important role during fertilization and its role is associated with acrosome stability. CD46 is probably involved in signalling pathways triggering the acrosome reaction. Integrins interact with many cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, therefore changes in the actin cytoskeleton before and after AR may lead to changes in the association and localization of CD46 and β1integrin. Our aim was to monitor mutual CD46 and β1integrin interaction detected by the proximity ligation assay. It generates a localized signal in a form of spots revealing the exact position of the recognition event. Proteins interaction was study in freshly released sperm and sperm during the acrosome reaction, during which there is a gradual relocation of these proteins towards the equatorial segment and the whole sperm head. Proteins α and β tubulin were used as a positive control, α tubulin and β1 integrin as a negative control. In situ PLA showed a distinct spotted signal indicating the mutual interaction of CD46 and β1integrin. A positive response was demonstrated not only in freshly released sperm but also in sperm during the acrosome reaction. Freshly released sperm were distinctively labelled in the acrosome region and the neck, similarly to the positive control. Sperm during the acrosome reaction showed the signal across the whole sperm head region. No signal or sporadic nonspecific staining was detected in the case of the negative control. In summary, our results deliver new information that proteins CD46 and β1 integrin interact with each other. These results suppose the theory that β1 integrin can mediate a connection between CD46 and sperm cytoskeleton thereby molecules of signalling pathways leading to activation of the acrosome reaction.
Dynamics of mouse sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction
Dvořáková-Hortová, Kateřina ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Děd, Lukáš ; Šebková, Nataša
Capacitation followed by the acrosome reaction (AR), is a very complex event of molecular changes, including acrosome matrix rearrangement and actin polymerization, which mammalian sperm must undergo in the female reproductive tract in order to obtain the ability to penetrate and fertilize the egg. CD46 and β1-integrin belong to specific proteins, which are predicted to interact during molecular reorganization of capacitating sperm. The IZUMO1 as the primary fusion protein of the mammalian sperm is also involved in this dynamic network. We investigated the relationship between the Izumo, CD46 and β1 integrin relocation in the sperm head during the capacitation and AR in vitro. We have already successfully monitored by immunofluorescent labelling the dynamics of proteins CD46 and β1-integrin. The changes in the localization of these proteins associated with the AR and their mutual co-localization was observed. The original β1-integrin location in the freshly released epididymal sperm is in the acrosome and it relocates during the AR further through the sperm head compartments into the equatorial segment and over the whole sperm head. Its density over the equatorial segment is decreasing with the extended time of the AR. Also its presence in the perforatorium of the mouse sperm head is very prominent. The pattern for protein CD46 is extremely similar if not identical in both aspects such as compartment localization and time progress during capacitation and AR in vitro. The molecular interaction of CD46 and β1-integrin was investigated using the Proximity Ligation Assay and Super resolution microscopy STED. The data were statistically analysed. The newly obtained results from CD46 and β1-integrin relocation are in correlation with IZUMO1 dynamics and giving a substantial knowledge on the studied protein network rearrangement during capacitation and AR in mouse spermatozoa.

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