National Repository of Grey Literature 35 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Preparation of Tobermorite
Dlabajová, Lucie ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Martinec, Petr (referee) ; Ptáček, Petr (advisor)
This doctoral thesis is focused on the study of reactions in the CaO–SiO2–H2O complex system, primarily to the synthesis of crystalline tobermorite. Hydrothermal conditions are necessary for the formation of crystalline tobermorite, whereas the course of the reaction is influenced by several factors. The main studied factor was the choice of the silica sources differing in means of solubility, crystallinity, particle size distribution, specific surface area, and purity. The water-to-solid ratio turned to be also an important factor as the length of the hydrothermal reaction. The influence of the mechanochemical pretreatment of starting materials to the final phase composition of samples was studied as well. The obtained results show that the crystallinity of the silica source is the main factor influencing the reaction rate and the purity of the synthesized tobermorite. While using the crystalline silica source the shorter silicate chains are formed and the formation of tobermorite structure is easier. Using the amorphous silica sources and the mechanochemical pretreatement of starting materials prolong the hydrothermal reaction. The prepared samples are always the mixture of crystalline or semicrystalline calcium hydrosilicates instead of the phase pure tobermorite.
Influence of Zinc in Byproducts on Hydration and Properties of Blended Portlands Cements
Šilerová, Iva ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Rovnaníková, Pavla (referee) ; Havlica, Jaromír (advisor)
The theme of this work is to monitor the effect of zinc on the properties of blended Portland cements. Zinc was tested in the form of two-soluble salts: Zn(NO3)22 H2O and ZnCl2 and a very slightly soluble compound ZnO. Blended cements were prepared by partial replacement with finely ground granulated blast furnace slag, high-temperature and fluidized bed combustion filter fly ash. Flow properties were studied on the prepared pastes. Impact on hydration reactions was examined by using of isothermal and isoperibolic calorimetry. Flexural and compressive strength were measured as mechanical properties of the prepared test specimens. The phase composition of the prepared composites and incorporation of zinc ions in the cement matrix via leaching tests and FTIR analyzes were also studied. Microstructure development of cement samples was tested by SEM analysis with EDS. Influence on ecotoxicity was also measured.
Development of phase composition in silicate systems by available methods and their optimalization
Opravilová, Lenka ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Škvára, František (referee) ; Havlica, Jaromír (advisor)
One of the most prominent measurable parameters of the development of phases and phase transformations in inorganic systems are undoubtedly the volume changes of silicate matrix. The study of volume changes is crucial in the terms of usable durability of final product. They represent shrinkage or expansion of the material and may lead to significant decrease of technological and ecological parameters and often to complete destruction of these materials. Most often the volume changes can be observed when cement is used as a binder and in concretes, mortars, artificial aggregates and other similar materials. There are many methods to detect, define and determine the volume changes qualitatively or quantitatively. The development of phases was investigated as a part of the dissertation thesis and hence the volume changes were observed under the conditions closest to the real state in the construction industry. The raw materials and admixtures were selected which model the content of hazardous components present in conventional materials (both natural and secondary), used in construction and the relationship with volume changes was searched and demonstrated. The contacts for measuring the volume changes were attached to test surfaces of specimens and the physical - mechanical tests (volume changes, phase changes, strength, etc.), chemical analysis and ecotoxicity tests depending on the length of hydration were performed.
Synthesis of High-Strength Composites Based on Inorganic Cement and Polymer
Másilko, Jiří ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Drábik, Milan (referee) ; Havlica, Jaromír (advisor)
The subject of the doctoral thesis is the study of moisture resistance of macro-defect-free (MDF) composites based on calcium-aluminate cement and polyvinylalcohol used as polymer. MDF cements are perspective materials providing unique properties relative to traditional cement pastes with great potential to incoming constructional utilization. But it is known that MDF cements exhibit sensitivity to water, with swelling and reduction of strength. Therefore the work is aimed in monitoring of an organic polymer effect on the moisture resistance of MDF materials and phase changes. The effects of three different organotitanate cross-linking agents on the properties were investigated. The organotitanate-modified MDF cement samples exhibited improved moisture resistance as compared to the standard samples when exposed to 100 % relative humidity or water at laboratory conditions. The influence of composition at different curing on the properties of model MDF cement samples was observed. The characterization of MDF samples was based especially on test of flexural strength, XRD, DTA/TGA and EGA, EDS and scanning electron microscopy analyses.
The composition and physical-mechanical properties of self consolidating mortars
Čepčianska, Jana ; Bílek, Vlastimil (referee) ; Palou, Martin (advisor)
This Master thesis is focused on characterization of multicompound self-compacting heavy-weight mortars resistant against long lasting influence of ionizing radiation in the underground nuclear waste storage. It examines a specific combination of properties of heavy-weight concretes and self-compacting mortars while considering the ecological and energetic impact of their production, as well as the productibility of partial substitutions that do not have negative impact on material properties. The Experimental part provides a comprehensive overview of composition and properties of self-compacting heavy-weight mortars with varying percentages of cement-to-mortar ratio. Sample properties were evaluated based on mechanical test results, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
Rheology of Inorganic Materials in Technology
Wirthová, Michaela ; Živica,, Vladimír (referee) ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Havlica, Jaromír (advisor)
Disertační práce se zabývá studiem reologického chování materiálů na bázi cementu. Úvodní část obsahuje teoretické poznatky týkající se reologie a zkoumaných materiálů (cement, samozhutnitelný beton, superplastifikátory). Poté následuje detailní popis reologických vlastností čerstvých cementových materiálů. Kromě toho je dále uvedena hydratace cementu, kalorimetrie, Vicatův test, rentgenová difrakční analýza a elektronová mikroskopie. Experimentální část práce je rozdělena do dvou částí. První část se zabývá základní charakterizací, reologickým měřením a studiem statické meze toku směsí samozhutnitelných betonů a jejich matric. Druhá část se týká cementových past, které byly podrobeny testování pomocí reometru, Vicatova přístroje, isoperibolického a modulárního kalorimetru, rentgenového difraktometru a elektronového mikroskopu.
Relation between Preparation Parameters of Belite Cement and its Hydraulic Properties
Staněk, Theodor ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Škvára, František (referee) ; Havlica, Jaromír (advisor)
The dissertation thesis is devoted to the study of belite clinkers and to the possibilities of the increase in their hydraulic activity. The mechanism and the kinetics of belite clinker formation were studied together with the relation of the velocity of these processes and the hydraulic activity of clinker. The influence of various parameters (degree of lime saturation, duration and temperature of burning) of the belite clinker preparation on the belite clinker development in time, on belite polymorphism, on the chemical composition of belite crystals and on the belite cement hydraulic activity was studied, too. The research methods used for the investigation involved electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, high-temperature microphotometry and calorimetry. The resulting clinkers were hydraulically activated by addition of calcium sulfate. The experiments have proven that the higher rate of belite formation does not lead to the increase of its hydraulic activity, as opposed to that of alite. On the other hand, the chemical activation by sulfate anions enables to prepare clinker with relatively higher degree of lime saturation with minor admixture of alite and anhydrite, which is hydraulically activated. The work was concluded by experimental burning of belite clinker doped with sulfate anions in a model rotary kiln and by the preparation of cements blended with common industrial alite clinker. The results indicate the possibility of separate industrial production of special belite clinker alongside with common alite clinker and the production of economically and environmentally beneficial blended Portland cements with suitable technological parameters, or targeted production of special cements with properties corresponding to their required utilization.
The Synthesis and Characterisation of Biocomposite Materials for Potential Application in Medicine
Balgová, Zuzana ; Plešingerová,, Beatrice (referee) ; Bakoš, Dušan (referee) ; Palou, Martin (advisor)
Dizertační práce se zabývala syntézou a studiem kompozitních materiálů pro potenciální lékařské využití. Teoretická část je zaměřena na biomateriály, zejména na kompozity složené z polyvinylalkoholu a hydroxyapatitu(PVA/HA). Byly připraveny kompozitní membrány složené z polyvinylalkoholu s různým hmotnostním zastoupením hydroxyapatitu - 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% a 50%. Hydroxyapatit (HA) byl připraven srážecí metodou z hydrogenfosforečnanu amonného a tetrahydrátu dusičnanu vápenatého ve vodném alkalickém prostředí. Vzniklá suspenze se smísila s roztokem polyvinylalkoholu, který byl připraven rozpuštěním ve vodě o teplotě 85° C. Jednotlivé směsi byly odlity do formy a sušeny po dobu 7 dní při teplotě 30 ° C, vzniklé 0,5 mm tenké membrány byly analyzovány ATR-FTIR spektroskopií k identifikaci funkčních skupin v kompozitu, dále byla provedena XRD analýza. Zkouška tahem a TGA měření byly realizovány k určení vlivu HA na mechanické vlastnosti, respektive změnu tepelné odolnosti kompozitů ve srovnání s čistým PVA. Byla provedena zkouška bioaktivity v simulovaném krevním roztoku (SBF) po dobu 2h, 7 a 28 dnů. SEM byla použita k charakterizaci povrchové mikrostruktury biocompositních membrán před a po ponoření do SBF. Na povrchu testovaných membrán vznikla vrstva apatitu, která je charakteristická pro bioaktivní materiály. Bylo zjištěno, že s rostoucím množstvím HA částic docházelo ke vzniku aglomerátů v kompozitu, které vznikly mimo jiné jako důsledek růstu krystalů HA během sušení membrán. Bioaktivita rostla s delším působením SBF na vzorky.
Reduction of CO2 emissions during firing of hydraulic binders
Stachová, Jana ; Kolář,, Karel (referee) ; Wagner,, Štěpán (referee) ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Dvořák, Karel (advisor)
The thesis is focused on research and development of hydraulic binders based on FBC-ashes. It examines the possibilities of using this ash in the clinker so that the properties of the final cement are comparable to Portland cement. As an integral part of this thesis the research of emission reduction possibilities in the cement industry - a very current topic these days - is presented.
Alfa Gypsum Production Using Chloride Dust
Kalivoda, Karel ; Rovnaníková, Pavla (referee) ; Palou, Martin (referee) ; Kolář,, Karel (referee) ; Fridrichová, Marcela (advisor)
The aim of this doctoral thesis is to verify, using previously developed laboratory instruments, the possibility of a complete or partial substitution of currently used dehydration solutions of sodium chloride and calcium chloride by potassium chloride solution extracted from chloride dusts coming from cement production, using non-pressure method to produce alpha gypsum.

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