National Repository of Grey Literature 289 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Characterization of bacterial strains obtained in evolutionary engineering
Hrabalová, Vendula ; Sedláček, Petr (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with application of evolutionary engineering on PHA producing bacterial strains. Two bacterial strains, Cupriavidus necator H16 and Halomonas halophila, were chosen for the evolutionary experiments. Copper cations (Cu2+) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were chosen as the selective pressure for C. necator H16; acetic acid (AA) and levulinic acid (LA) for Halomonas halophila. The adapted strains were during long-time evolutionary experiments characterized by GC-FID and SEC-MALS. The growth of the adapted strains was studied by the mean of optical density measurement. The amount of viable cells was determined by spectral FC after their expositon to selected stress factors. Specific enzyme activities of enzymes involved in citrate and glyoxalate cycle, enzymes generating NADPH, LA metabolism enzyme and PHA biosynthesis enzymes were determined. The adapted strains were compared with the wild-type of strains. The successfull adaptation of C. necator H16 adapted to Cu2+ was detected. Biomass and PHA production of both wild and adapted H. halophila strains cultivated in lignocellulosis waste were determined. It was found out that H. halophila adapted to the LA is capable of producing more PHA than the wild strain of this bacteria.
Production of polyesters by extremophilic bacteria
Bednárová, Kristína ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using thermophilic bacterial strains Schlegelella thermodepolymerans, Schlegelella aquatica and Thermomonas hydrothermalis. The aim of the thesis is to optimize the conditions of polymer production. In bacterial strains of the genus Schlegelella, phaC gene at the genotype level was confirmed. The ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates in the bacterial strain Thermomonas hydrothermalis at the phenotype level was demonstrated. The utilization of selected carbon sources was studied experimentaly. The production of PHA was optimized by selecting the appropriate substrate and cultivation temperature. The effect of precursors on the production of copolymers P(3HB-co-4HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) was observed. The most promising carbon substrate for bacterial strain Schlegelella aquatica was glycerol while the best metabolic activity was at 45 °C. Strain Thermomonas hydrothermalis was able to produce the copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) with extreme high molar fraction of 4HB. Optimal cultivation temperature was 55 °C. The highest yield of P(3HB) among selected bacteria, synthesized Schlegelella thermodepolymerans cultivated on xylose at 55 °C. For this strain, the effect of aeration on biomass growth and PHA production was observed. In an effort to reduce production costs, Schlegelella thermodepolymerans was cultivated on model hydrolysates of lignocellulose-rich materials. Finally, batch cultivation in a larger production volume in laboratory fermentor was performed.
Acetic acid as a side product of metabolism of PHA producing bacteria
Ryšavá, Lenka ; Obručová,, Hana (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
The Bachelor´s thesis deals with experimental study production of acetic acid as a side product of metabolism of PHA producing bacteria. Experimental part of work deals with the impact of used substrate on the biomass growth, PHA production and the formation of organic acids in strains that can potentially find their application in industrial production of PHA – Cupriavidus necator H16, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia cepacia. The highest yields of organic acid have been reached on Burkholderia sacchari when cultivated on mineral medium with glucose. The last part of the thesis is focused on determining the viability of micro organisms using flow cytometry where bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16, Burkholderia sacchari, Burkholderia cepacia were exposed to selected stress factors.
DNA Isolation and Analysis Focused on Microorganisms Important in Food Production
Čutová, Michaela ; Obruča, Stanislav (referee) ; Fojtová,, Miloslava (referee) ; Brázda, Václav (advisor)
Identification of bacterial DNA consists from several steps: cell lysis, isolation and purification of DNA, precipitation by ethanol, identification of bacterial strain by PCR or other molecular biology methods. Each step must be optimised. Nucleic acids can be isolated from cells using magnetic particles. The molecules of DNA are bound to the surface of magnetic carriers by electrostatic interaction, and then they are eluted into buffer. The aim of the work will be to optimize individual steps of identification of bacterial DNA: cell lysis, DNA isolation, characterization of solid magnetic carriers functionalized by amino groups for nucleic acids isolation. The presence of DNA will be verified using agarose gel electrophoresis and the amount of eluted DNA will be determined spectrophotometrically. The quality of isolated DNA will be proved by their amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, the thesis focuses on the study of secondary structures of nucleic acids – cruciforms structures and quadruplexes. These structures are involved in the regulation of cellular processes and their appearance is associated with cancer development and neurodegenerative diseases. In silico genome analysis was performed on important food industry microorganisms. The microorganisms genomic sequences were obtained from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology) database. The Palindrome Analyzer and G4 Hunter software were used for the analysis.
Involvement of polyhydroxyalkanoates in stress response of bacteria during late stationary phase
Šuráňová, Zuzana ; Sedláček, Petr (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
The aim of this work was to study the involvement of polyhydroxyalkanoates into stress response of bacteria in the late stationary phase. Bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16 (able to produce PHA) and bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16/PHB-4 (unable to produce PHA) were used for the experiment. In the theoretical part, the polyhydroxyalkanoates and a stress response of bacteria were reviewed. In the experimental part of the work, the involvement of polyhydroxyalkanoates into stress response of bacteria in the late stationary phase against selected stress factors was studied. A resistence against various stress conditions of bacteria was studied. During long term cultivations a culture viability as well as PHA distribution among bacterial populations were assessed by using flow cytometry and the PHA content in biomass was analyzed by gas chromatography with FID detector.. Based on the results obtained in this work, it was found that the PHA acumulating bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16 is capable to survive carbon substrate limitations better than the bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16/PHB. Further, Cupriavidus necator H16 also revealed higher resistence against various stress factors such as ethanol treatment and freezing.
Study of the chemical processes during kombucha technology
Chludilová, Markéta ; Obruča, Stanislav (referee) ; Pořízka, Jaromír (advisor)
The kombucha drink is referred to as leavened tea with added sponge called a scobie. In this way, a low-alcohol beverage is obtained, which gains considerable popularity, especially due to the alleged beneficial properties for human health. The microbial composition of this beverage is very rich, consisting of bacteria and yeasts living in a beneficial symbiosis [11]. The microbial composition of the drink and its beneficial effects on human health are very closely related. This work deals with the analysis of the chemical composition of the commodity beverage, especially with regard to the content of major components such as organic acids, carbohydrates and ethanol. These analytes are among the most common and most profoundly found substances in the carbohydrate beverage and are very closely related to the microbial composition of the scoby itself [3]. Combo beverage samples were supplied by RebornFood, one of which is the commercial production of this drink on the Czech market. At the same time, this company bases itself on purely natural fermentation of beverages, and therefore it is not particularly involved in the production process. The results of this diploma work point to the effect of the scoby used and the associated occurrence of analytes in the beverage, as well as the production process associated with the formation of analytes, which is described in several articles. It is expected that this work will provide information both on the production conditions and on the chemical properties of the beverage related to the condition of the scoby, which will be used further, both for RebornFood and the material used to solve the technical problems of this beverage production.
Characterization and stabilization of pancreatin
Wurstová, Agáta ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This work focuses on a study of enzyme mixture pancreatin, its characterization and subsequent encapsulation into liposomes. As a reference proteins bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used. Characterization of pancreatin consisted of two parts. The first part focuses on optimization of methods for the concentration determination by absorption spectrophotometry using basic methods for identifying proteins (Biuret method, Hartree-Lowry method and Bradford method). Moreover, UV spectrums of the protein were measured. As a method for identification of protein´s molecular weight, SDS-PAGE was used. To identify components of pancreatin, LPLC was employed in two modifications, ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The second part is dedicated to the characterization of pancreatin as enzyme in terms of pH and temperature optimum for the enzyme activities of protease (pH 9, 8 and 50 °C), amylase (pH 7 and 40 °C) and lipase (pH 7 and 50 °C). The last part of this work aimed at an encapsulation of pancreatin into liposomes and DLS analysis of distribution of particles and their zeta potential. Liposomes did not spontaneously release encapsulated enzyme. To confirm that proteins were successfully entrapped into liposomes, their structure was disrupted by application of phospholipase D. In conclusion, liposomes can be utilized as delivery systems for native enzymes.
Analytical centrifugation as a tool for characterization of microbial cells
Beránková, Barbora ; Müllerová, Lucie (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of centrifugation potential of microorganisms depending on the cultivation conditions The experimental part focuses on the sedimentation velocity and the instability index of the studied microorganisms during growth, under temperature and salt stress, the influence of the medium composition on centrifugation and the effect of osmotic strength on halophilic microbe Haloferax mediterranei. The sedimentation velocity and the instability index are increasing with increasing amount of water present in the bacterial culture of Haloferax mediterranei. The presence and type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) play a role in the monitoring of growth of bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16, Cupriavidus necator PHB-4, Haloferax mediterranei, Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari at the rate of sedimentation and instability index. Bacteria Cupriavis necator H16 with the highest content of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) present was the fastest sedimentating and most unstable of the bacteria studied. Bacteria Cupriavidus necator H16 and Cupriavidus necator PHB-4, exposed to temperature and salt stress, exhibited only a slight influence on the rate of sedimentation and instability under temperature stress. The sedimentation velocity and instability index decreased with saline stress with increasing concentration of NaCl solution in culture. When comparing the media composition to polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing bacteria, Cupriavidus necator H16 cultivated in the mineral medium demonstrated the lowest sedimentation velocity and instability index rates, but Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 reached the lowest sedimentation velocity and instability index when grown in Nutrient Broth medium. For yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the choice of medium had only a slight effect on sedimentation velocity and instability index.
Study on metabolism of polyhydroxybutyrate and glycogen in cyanobacteria
Drinka, Jakub ; Slaninová, Eva (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
The submitted diploma thesis is focused on establishing a quantification method for glycogen analysis in cyanobacterial cells in order to be able to consider the impact of illumination and other parameters on accumulation of reserve polymers, glycogen and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), namely poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The experiments were conducted with two cyanobacterial species, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechocystis salina CCALA 192, which were grown both in Erlenmayer flasks (EF) and multicultivator (MC). The methodology for glycogen accumulation was introduced based on available literature and conducted optimalization. The effect of different illumination conditions was observed in a nitrogen-limiting media M22O, in which half of the cultures were cultivated with a 16 hours of light and 8 lights of darkness periods (EF) for the whole duration of the experiment. Others were transfered into full-time dark period after entering the dormant chlorosis state, following the exhaustion of nitrogen levels in the media. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 showed a decrease in both of the reserve polymers accumulation when introduced to this type of stress conditions. On the other hand, Synechocystis salina CCALA 192 converted some of the glycogen into PHB in the dark, but the polyester levels were lower than those of the cultures continuously cultivated under the lamp. A negative effect on the biomass concentration was also detected, while cyanobacterial pigments seemed to be unaffected by the lack of light, their levels in the EF that remained illuminated decreased due to chrolosis. The experiments in the MC were conducted in the same way, but the light period consisted of constant, 24-hour illumination. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 seemed to follow a different trend than in cultivations in EF, the PHB concentration was not affected by the dark period and remained on the same amounts, while glycogen was metabolised. Synechocystis salina CCALA 192 increased its polyester reserves in the darkness and in comparison with the first species accumulated almost 4 times more PHB. However, the results acquired from cultivations in MC seemed to be very unequal due to a lot of small differences in the cultivation conditions. That was the reason why in the later stages of experiments they were focused more on a possible PHA copolymer formation, rather than comparing the functions of these two reserve polymers in the light/dark cycles. However, none of the cultivations was succesful in this matter and no monomer other than 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) was detected in the dried biomass.
Thermophilic Enzymes
Kuchtová, Ludmila ; Obruča, Stanislav (referee) ; Babák, Libor (advisor)
Thermophilic enzymes are produced by organisms living at temperatures between 60 and 80°C, in some cases even higher, and are active and stabile at these temperatures. This work deals with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms, their habitats, ways of adaptation to environment with considerably higher temperatures than optimal temperature for most organisms, and recent findings and opinions about possible factors enhancing protein thermostability. Properties and behaviour of thermophilic enzymes and their current applications (i.e. PCR, starch industry) are summarized. Advantages and disadvantages of using of these enzymes in comparison to currently used mesophilic enzymes are compared. Possible applications of thermozymes in various industrial branches, where they could replace some environment polluting procedures, simplify technology and be economically important, are introduced.

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