National Repository of Grey Literature 44 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The Way of St. James: Modern Pilgrims and their Relationship to Nature
Hroudová, Jolana ; Mašek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Skripnik, Ondřej (referee)
This master's thesis deals with the phenomenon of pilgrimage, focusing on the Way of Saint James to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. Due to its qualitative nature, the thesis seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of people who embark on the now very popular pilgrimage. Using sensitive data collection methods of qualitative observation, informal interviews and two rounds of semi- structured interviews with pilgrims during and one month after completing the Way of Saint James, it explores how modern pilgrims perceive society and nature, what changes the pilgrimage inspires them to make, and what impact it has on their subsequent return to ordinary life. This thesis does not address the phenomenon of pilgrimage as a spiritual activity. It focuses primarily on the relationship between people and nature, which distinguishes it from other theses with similar focus. Furthermore, the thesis offers a multidisciplinary perspective and combines the approaches of sociology, anthropology and environmental aesthetics. Understanding the way pilgrims on their journey think about the landscapes they pass through, how they perceive time, space, themselves, and how they reflect on the journey in hindsight, can contribute to deepening our understanding of the phenomenon of pilgrimage and wandering in...
Where transcription meets translation
Hegrová, Karolína ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
Transcription and translation are key steps in gene expression. The RNA polymerase (RNAP) plays a major role in the transcription process, while the ribosome is involved in translation. In bacteria, these two processes are not separated. RNAP and the ribosome interact, and its called transcription- translation coupling. In this thesis, I discuss the mechanism of transcription and translation, with the main focus on transcription-translation interactions. I divide these interactions into indirect, which are caused by regulátory molecules, and direct, where the ribosome directly binds with RNAP. When physical binding occurs, either a tight junction between these molecules occurs or a bridge is formed by transcription factors. Then I describe regulatory function of this connection and explain the exceptions where transcription and translation don't link. In the last part of the thesis, I focus on elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), its important role in metabolism, its interactions with MreB protein, and how this factor is used by some bacteriophages. Finally, I mention its possible role in transcription-translation interactions. Key words: transcription, translation, transcription-translation coupling, RNA polymerase, ribosome, transcription factors, EF-Tu
Conjugate Addition Coupled with Enolate Oxidation in the Total Synthesis of Natural Polyphenols
Mašek, Tomáš ; Jahn, Ullrich (advisor) ; Pospíšil, Jiří (referee) ; Švenda, Jakub (referee)
1 ABSTRACT This thesis describes the development of the concept of C-C bond forming conjugate addition/oxidative cyclisation reactions and their application in the total synthesis of natural polyphenols. The first part deals with the development of methodology for conjugate addition of main- group organometallic reagents to unsaturated carbonyl compounds coupled with in situ single electron transfer oxidation. The resulting radical undergoes stereoselective cyclisation, that can be followed by a second SET oxidation, leading to further cationic cyclisation. This methodology is ideally suited for the synthesis of furoindane stilbenolignans (FIS), a neglected and structurally distinct class of natural polyphenols. Using this process, racemic synthesis of a derivative of kompasinol A was achieved, confirming the relative configuration of FISs. In an effort to develop asymmetric route to FISs, an unprecedented direct conjugate addition of aryllithiums to ylidenemalonates mediated by diethers and diamines was discovered, leading to asymmetric synthesis of gnetifolin F and 11- deoxykompasinol A. Based on X-ray evidence, a related annulation methodology consisting of direct conjugate addition/epoxide opening was shown to result in bridged lactones, instead of isomeric FISs. This finding led to an approach for the...
Folk costumes from North-East Bohemia: Their differences and common traits
Mašek, Tomáš ; Janeček, Petr (advisor) ; Štěpánová, Irena (referee)
This bachelor's thesis deals with analysis of regional and local differentiation of folk costumes from northeast Bohemia. The research question of this thesis is which common traits are shared in folk costumes in three main regions of northeast Bohemia and which are different and specific on the level of microregions. Following question is the reason of this differenciation from the historical and cultural point of view and constructing imaginary borders of these regions based on cultural topography and etnography in contrast of borders invented by folklore movement. (folklore ensembles, "baráčníci", etc.) Metodology of this thesis is based on work with sources from archives and muzeums, etnologic photography, fieldwork and interviews with members of folklore clubs in regions. The first part deals with introduction to the area this thesis is interrested in and its definition, general description of folk cotumes, its parts and functions and common traits of folk costumes from northeast Bohemia. The second part which begins with chapter Kroje severovýchodních Čech (Folk costumes of northeast Bohemia) deals with definition of specific regions of northeast Bohemia and with detailed description of folk costumes which are typical for these regions with an emphasis on their differences. Keywords: Folk...
tsRNA - biogenesis, regulation and function in gene expression
Ramanava, Marharyta ; Mašek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Fryaufová, Petra (referee)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) accounts for approximately 10% of total cellular RNA pool and plays a crucial role in translation. Here I focus on the alternative function of tRNA, which can serve as a precursor for the formation of so-called "small RNAs derived from tRNA" (tsRNAs). These small non-coding RNAs are primarily generated by the cleavage of tRNAs by the ribonucleases Angiogenin and Dicer. tRFs (tRNA-derived fragments) and tiRNAs (stress- induced RNA-derived RNAs) are two major classes that differ fundamentally in the position of the cleavage site in the parent tRNA and the length of the molecule. Some tsRNAs act as regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression, often affecting mRNA stability and translation initiation. tsRNAs are implicated in regulation of stress response, cell differentiation, development, and apoptosis. Further, there is strong evidence that they have a role in epigenetic processes, communication between organs or even between organisms. In addition, in humans, their profile is often cell-specific and its change in pathophysiological conditions makes tsRNAs a suitable diagnostic marker. This work summarizes current knowledge about tsRNAs and their biological function and significance. Kaywords: small RNAs derived from tRNA; tRNA; tiRNA; tRF; gene expression regulation
Experimental system for the mouse polyomavirus life cycle study
Pergner, Jiří ; Španielová, Hana (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
Experimental system for the mouse polyomavirus life cycle study Abstract: Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) is the prototype of the Polyomaviridae family. This family includes also some important human pathogens (BKV, JCV, Merkel cell polyomavirus). Due to their specific properties viruses within this family may serve as versatile vectors for gene therapy or recombinant vaccine production. New methodological approaches may help to understand some yet unknown facts about MPyV life cycle. Clarification of some processes during murine polyomavirus life cycle may be also important to fully exploit polyomaviruses for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this diploma thesis was to preparare two innovative experimental systems that extend possibilities of studying the life cycle of MPyV. The first part of the diploma thesis focusses on construction of recombinant MPyV which expresses yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) in the early stages of infection. Such virus can be very useful for studying the infection spreading by live- cell imaging and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) and can be employed for co- localization studies of YFP-tagged LT antigen with certain cellular proteins. Second part of the diploma thesis describes preparation of a hybrid cell line prepared by fusion of mouse and monkey cells. This new cell...
Functional analysis of the TIF32-HLD-PRT1-RRM-HCR1 module of the yeast translation initiation factor 3
Herrmannová, Anna ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
The eIF3 is in yeast S. cerevisiae composed of five core essential subunits (TIF32, NIP1, PRT1, TIF34 and TIF35) and one nonessential substoichiometric subunit (HCR1), and as such represents the most complex initiation factor among all. Perhaps owing to that, it was shown to stimulate nearly all steps of the initiation pathway culminating in the formation of the 80S initiation complex at the AUG start codon on mRNA. Yeast eIF3 was also demonstrated to assemble together with the ternary complex, eIF1 and eIF5 into so called Multifactor complex that can exist free of ribosomes and whose formation greatly stimulates initiation efficiency. TIF32, the largest eIF3 subunit, was shown to make at least two critical contacts with the 40S ribosomal subunit and its middle domain, designated as the HLD, to share a significant sequence similarity with the HCR1 subunit. Experiments conducted here indicate that the TIF32-HLD and HCR1 share also some functional similarity as the recombinant HLD expressed under control of the HCR1 promoter in a domain- swapping experiment partially suppressed the slow growth phenotype of cells deleted for HCR1. In addition to the HLD, HCR1 also simultaneously interacts with the RRM domain of PRT1, which is considered to be the main scaffolding subunit of eIF3. The group of Dr. P.J....
Yeast as a tool in development of new antivirals
Dubská, Jitka ; Mašek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Janderová, Blanka (referee)
The increase of infectious chronic diseases is the main health problem of modern civilization. These diseases, which are spread both in developing as well as industrial countries, cause more than 59% of all life ends. Statistically, the most frequent infection is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Incurable hepatic illnesses such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the outcomes of the HCV infection and the liver transplantation is the only successful therapeutic option for the patients in industrial countries. It is estimated that about 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with this virus. HCV is a small coated virus with single stranded RNA genome of positive polarity. Lots of research has been done since it was discovered twenty years ago but the efficient drug is still missing. There is a strong tendency to focus the research on searching for translation initiation inhibitors in last few years, because the whole life cycle of HCV, including RNA replication, new virions assembly etc., is dependent on translation products. Nowadays there is a small group of human proteins (so called ITAFs) known for up- or down-regulate HCV and other viruses translation initiation. It is believed, that this group is much more comprehensive. The aim of this diploma work was to construct yeast...

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