National Repository of Grey Literature 44 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell defects in transgenic model of Diamond-Blackfan anemia
Holečková, Markéta ; Kokavec, Juraj (advisor) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by deficient development of erythroid progenitors and accompanied by a variable set of developmental defects. About 25 % of patients have mutations of the small ribosomal subunit protein RPS19, and the precise mechanism of single aminoacidic mutations of RPS19 protein in the pathology of Diamond-Blackfan anemia remains largely unknown. To understand the interaction between of genotype and phenotypic variability we have created a mouse model with homozygous mutation in a highly conserved arginine 67 (Rps19R67Δ/R67Δ ). Mouse model with this mutation display many of the same phenotypical trades as patients with DBA. We decided to focus on hematopoiesis and erythropoiesis in this mouse model and tried to characterize those processes. We discovered that Rps19R67Δ/R67Δ mice similarly to DBA patients suffer from anemia and that the erythropoiesis process is disrupted at the stage of proerythroblasts. We also observed changes in hematopoiesis in stages as early as multipotent progenitors. The role of p53 protein as a modifier of DBA phenotype is well known. We created mouse model with p53 depletion to assess the role of p53 protein in relation with mutation in Rps19. Rps19R67Δ/R67Δ Trp53-/- mice show no signs of...
Characterization of RPG1, the large subunit of the yeast S. cerevisiae initiation translation factor 3 (eIF3)
Valášek, Leoš
Characterization of RPG1, the Large Subunit of the Yeast S. cerevisiae Initiation Translation Factor 3 (elF3). Dissertation for the attainment of the academic degree Doctor of Natural Sciences at the Formal and Natural Sciences Faculty of the University of Vienna submitted by Mag. Leoš Valášek Vienna, September 1998 ABSTRACT Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) consists of at least eight subunits and plays a key role in the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex by dissociating 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, stabilizing the ternary complex and promoting mRNA binding to 40S ribosomal subunits. The product of the S. cerevisiae RPG1 gene has been described to encode a protein required for passage through the G1 phase of the cell cycle and to exhibit significant sequence similarity to the largest subunit ofhuman eIF3. Here I show that under non-denaturing conditions, Rpg1p copurifies with a known yeast eIF3 subunit, Prt1p. An anti-Rpg1p antibody co-immunoprecipitates Prt1p, and an antibody directed against the Myc-tag of a tagged version of Prt1p co- immunoprecipitates Rpg1p demonstrating that both proteins are present in the same complex. The integrity of this complex is not influenced by the increased temperature in the background of a rpg1-1 temperature sensitive mutant strain. A cell-free translation...
Factors interacting with bacterial RNA polymerase and their effect on the regulation of transcription initiation
Ramaniuk, Volha ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
(ENGLISH) The bacterial cell needs to regulate its gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the pivotal enzyme of this process and its activity is controlled by a number of auxiliary factors. Here I focus on RNAP-associating factors involved in regulation of transcription in G+ bacteria:  factors, initiating nucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs), HelD, δ and small RNA Ms1. The main emphasis is on σ factors from Bacillus subtilis. σ factors allow RNAP to specifically recognize promoter DNA. In my first project I set up in vitro transcription systems with purified alternative σ factors, σB , σD , σH , σI from B. subtilis. Using these systems, I studied the effect of initiating NTP concentration ([iNTP]) on transcription initiation. I showed that promoters of alternative  factors are often regulated by [iNTP]. In the next project I comprehensively characterized one of the least explored alternative  factors from B. subtilis, I . I identified ~130 genes affected by I , though only 16 of them were directly affected. Moreover, I discovered that I is involved in iron metabolism. Finally, I showed that I binding requires not only the conserved -35 and -10 hexamers, but also extended -35 and -10 elements located in the spacer region. In collaboration with...
Noncanonical human eIF4Es in and out of the RNA granules
Frydrýšková, Klára ; Pospíšek, Martin (advisor) ; Půta, František (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E1 (eIF4E1) plays a pivotal role in the control of cap-dependent translation initiation, occurs in P- bodies and is important for the formation of stress granules (SG). Human cells encompass two other non-canonical translation initiation factors capable of cap binding although with a lower affinity for the cap: eIF4E2 and eIF4E3. Here, I investigated the ability of individual eIF4E family members and their variants to localize to SGs and P-bodies in stress-free, arsenite and heat shock conditions. Under all tested conditions, both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 proteins and all their variants localized to P-bodies unlike eIF4E3 protein variants. Under both arsenite and heat stress conditions all tested variants of eIF4E1 and the variant eIF4E3-A localized to SGs albeit with different abilities. Protein eIF4E2 and all its investigated variants localized specifically to a major part of heat stress-induced stress granules. Further analysis showed that approximately 75% of heat stress-induced stress granules contain all three eIF4Es, while in 25% of them eIF4E2 is missing. Large ribosomal subunit protein L22 was found specifically enriched in arsenite induced SGs. Heat stress-induced re- localization of several proteins typical for P-bodies such as eIF4E2, DCP-1, AGO-2...
Molecular principles of translation reinitiation in mammals
Hronová, Vladislava ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee) ; Staněk, David (referee)
Translation initiation is a multistep process resulting in the formation of the elongation-competent 80S ribosome at the AUG start codon of the mRNA to be translated into a polypeptide chain. This process is orchestrated by numerous proteins called eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), out of which the most multitasking one is the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3). The main focus of our laboratory aims at the complex characterization of the multisubunit protein eIF3 and the mechanisms of its contribution to various steps of translation initiation. Besides this, we also study one of the gene-specific translational control mechanisms called reinitiation which was, at least in yeast, also shown to be promoted by eIF3. Here I show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the largest subunit of yeast eIF3, a/Tif32, plays an important role not only in anchoring the eIF3 complex to the 40S small ribosomal subunit but it also critically contributes to mRNA recruitment to the 43S preinitiation complexes in vivo. The mRNA stabilization role of the a/Tif32-NTD at the mRNA exit channel of the 40S subunit was further confirmed in our following study by biophysical experiments. There, using in vivo approaches, we also demonstrated that mRNAs with longer 5'UTRs are more dependent on the stabilization role of the...
Functional analysis of the TIF32-HLD-PRT1-RRM-HCR1 module of the yeast translation initiation factor 3
Herrmannová, Anna ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
The eIF3 is in yeast S. cerevisiae composed of five core essential subunits (TIF32, NIP1, PRT1, TIF34 and TIF35) and one nonessential substoichiometric subunit (HCR1), and as such represents the most complex initiation factor among all. Perhaps owing to that, it was shown to stimulate nearly all steps of the initiation pathway culminating in the formation of the 80S initiation complex at the AUG start codon on mRNA. Yeast eIF3 was also demonstrated to assemble together with the ternary complex, eIF1 and eIF5 into so called Multifactor complex that can exist free of ribosomes and whose formation greatly stimulates initiation efficiency. TIF32, the largest eIF3 subunit, was shown to make at least two critical contacts with the 40S ribosomal subunit and its middle domain, designated as the HLD, to share a significant sequence similarity with the HCR1 subunit. Experiments conducted here indicate that the TIF32-HLD and HCR1 share also some functional similarity as the recombinant HLD expressed under control of the HCR1 promoter in a domain- swapping experiment partially suppressed the slow growth phenotype of cells deleted for HCR1. In addition to the HLD, HCR1 also simultaneously interacts with the RRM domain of PRT1, which is considered to be the main scaffolding subunit of eIF3. The group of Dr. P.J....
Translation reinitiation mechanism on mRNA of trascriptional activator GCN4.
Vlčková, Vladislava ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Strachotová, Dita (referee)
Translation reinitiation is a gene-specific translational control mechanism exploiting the ability of some short upstream open reading frames (uORFs) to retain post-termination 40S ribosomal subunit on the mRNA. Reinitiation efficiency depends on cis-acting sequences surrounding the uORF, translation elongation rates on the uORF, selected initiation factors, and the intercistronic distance of the short uORF from the main ORF. Although the precise mechanism of reinitiation is still not known, great progress in elucidating some of its details has been recently made with help of the GCN4 translational control model system. Among them, involvement of eIF3 was shown to play a critical role for efficiency of this process. In particular, it was proposed that eIF3 specifically interacts with sequences located upstream of a reinitiation-permissive uORF upon termination, and that this step is instrumental in stabilizing the 40S ribosomal subunit on the mRNA to allow subsequent resumption of scanning for reinitiation downstream. In this thesis, the current knowledge of the translation reinitiation mechanism is summarized. As a typical example, the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been chosen, the mRNA of which is subjected to a tight translational control via the very reinitiation mechanism.
RNA polymerase: The "meeting point" of regulatory networks
Wiedermannová, Jana ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Pospíšek, Martin (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a multisubunit complex essential for transcription of DNA into RNA. As a key enzyme responsible for regulation of gene expression it interprets regulatory signals from the cell and based on these cues RNAP adjusts transcription level of particular genes. This process is affected both by the regular subunits of RNAP as well as other transcription factors (TFs) directly or indirectly interacting with RNAP. The general focus of this Thesis was to extend the knowledge about the complex transcriptional regulatory networks and about the connections between individual pathways. The main specific topic and the main publication of the thesis are focused on the HelD protein, a novel binding partner of RNAP in Bacillus subtilis. We showed that HelD binds between the secondary channel of RNAP and alpha subunits of the core form of the enzyme. We proved that HelD stimulates transcription in an ATP dependent manner by enhancing transcriptional cycling and elongation. We revealed a new connection in the transcription regulatory machinery when we demonstrated that the stimulatory effect of HelD can be amplified by delta, a small subunit of RNAP specific for gram positive (G+) bacteria. Two other publications of the thesis are dealing with the delta subunit. We solved the 3D...
The role of translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) in translation termination.
Beznosková, Petra ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee) ; Staněk, David (referee)
Protein synthesis is a tightly regulated process of gene expression. Each gene has its start and its stop, which is determined by one of the three stop codons. Many recent articles describe ribosomes that purposely bypass stops on specific mRNAs to extend the nascent polypeptide to alter its properties. It is called programmed stop codon readthrough. Since over 15% of human genetic diseases are caused by so called premature termination codons (PTC) that halt translation and produce truncated proteins, this mechanism has a great potential implication in medical research. Numerous labs search for non-toxic drugs specifically increasing readthrough at PTCs; however, the success of this effort requires identification and understanding of all factors that are involved in this process. Here, we present one such factor eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and describe its ability to induce readthrough on stop codons in termination non-favorable context during programmed readthrough and also the consequences of its action on translation regulation. We additionally analyzed which near-cognate (nc) tRNAs are incorporated at UGA stop codons depending on the nucleotide that immediately follows them (so called +4 base). This way we established new rules for stop codon decoding and identified so called...

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2 Valášek, Lukáš
1 Valášek, Ľuboš
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