National Repository of Grey Literature 32 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Regulation of transcription in Gram-positive bacteria
Rabatinová, Alžběta ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Bobek, Jan (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Bacteria are the most abundant organisms on the planet. They live almost in all environments, including those that are most extreme. All land and water ecosystems depend heavily upon their activity. Bacteria play essential roles in cycling of nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. Due to their short cell cycle, they must be able to swiftly adapt to the conditions of their habitat to survive. Microbial growth itself is an autocatalytic process. There are three distinct phases of the growth curve: lag, exponential (log), and stationary. Bacterial cells must change their gene expression between these phases in order to adapt to the new conditions. The first stage of gene expression is transcription. The key enzyme of this stage is RNA polymerase (RNAP) that transcribes DNA into RNA. RNAP is regulated by a number of accessory proteins and also small molecule effectors. Understanding how RNAP functions is essential for understanding how bacteria cope with changing environments. This Thesis presents studies of selected aspects of bacterial gene expression regulation at the level of transcription, using Bacillus subtilis as the model organism. The first part of this Thesis focuses on protein determinants of the ability of RNAP to be regulated by the concentration of the initiating nucleoside...
The role of elF3 a Rps3 in stop codon readthrough
Poncová, Kristýna ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Vopálenský, Václav (referee) ; Krásný, Libor (referee)
Translation represents a highly regulated, interconnected process of protein synthesis in the cell. It could be divided into 4 phases: initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosomal recycling. Our laboratory is involved in in-depth studies of a complex eukaryotic initiation factor 3 protein (eIF3). We are interested not only in revealing its molecular roles in the translational cycle in general but also in specific mechanisms that allow translational regulation according to specific cellular needs. In the budding yeast, the eIF3 is composed of five essential subunits (a/Tif32, b/Prt1, c/Nip1, g/Tif35 and i/Tif34). In mammals, the protein is even more complex, comprising of 12 subunits (a-i, k-m). eIF3 is a key player not only in translation initiation but also in ribosomal recycling and, surprisingly, in translation termination and stop codon readthrough as well. The latter process harbors important clinical potential, as approximately 1/3 of genetically inherited diseases is caused by the presence of a premature termination codon in the protein-coding region. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon provides important tools for the targeted and less toxic drug development approaches needed for patient therapy. In this Ph.D. Thesis, I uncovered the role of...
Age-related differences in translation of mammalian oocytes
del Llano Solanas, Edgar ; Kubelka, Michal (advisor) ; Nevoral, Jan (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Female germ cells (also known as oocytes) from mammalian species are found in the ovaries in a state of meiotic arrest at prophase I. It is not until puberty that oocytes start to be selected to grow, overcome their meiotic arrest and ovulate, so they become capable of being fertilized and give rise to new individuals. Half of the genetic information from these new individuals comes directly from the oocyte itself, therefore, oocyte and meiosis quality are of great importance for the reproduction. One of the factors, which can drastically reduce oocyte quality in several mammalian species is the advanced age of females. In both mice and humans age-related poor oocyte quality is reflected by a large increase of chromosomal aneuploidy rates. Having an incorrect number of chromosomes reduces embryo viability and may cause severe clinical outcomes. The work of this thesis was primarily directed towards a better understanding of the causes behind age-related aneuploidy in mice oocytes. One of the most characteristic features of oocytes is the fact that they become transcriptionally silent after meiotic resumption, relying heavily on translational control for protein expression. Here we show that after nuclear envelope break down (NEBD), one of the main protein kinases regulating translational...
The effect of selected endogenous and exogenous factors on bacterial growth
Šiková, Michaela ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee) ; Vopálenský, Václav (referee)
The growth of bacteria by binary division is a key characteristic of these organisms. This growth depends on two types of factors: endogenous and exogenous. Endogenous factors make up the molecular apparatus of cells. Among important endogenous factors belong also those involved in gene expression and its regulation. Exogenous factors are external conditions such as nutrient availability, temperature, pH, various stresses or the presence of antibacterial agents. The main aim of my Thesis was to study the effects of selected endogenous and exogenous factors on bacterial growth. As endogenous factors I studied RNase J1 in Bacillus subtilis and a small RNA called Ms1 in Mycobacterium smegmatis, which are involved in regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level. I showed that RNase J1 can, besides its role in RNA degradation, play a role in genome integrity by removing stalled RNA polymerase (RNAP) complexes from DNA. I further showed that Ms1 binds to the RNAP core and affects the level of RNAP in the cell. The results revealed new mechanistic aspects of the transcription apparatus and show how individual components or their combinations affect bacterial growth. As exogenous factors I studied the recently discovered antibacterial compounds, called lipophosphonoxins, their interaction...
Role of small ribosomal proteins forming the decoding site in translation.
Hovorková, Zuzana ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Hálová, Martina (referee)
Translation is one of the key mechanisms occurring in the cell during every second of its existence. It is a very complex process ensured by three main actors: tRNAs, mRNAs and ribosomes. Despite of being thoroughly studied over decades, the understanding of some of its functional aspects is still rather poor. This bachelor thesis focuses on four small ribosomal proteins listed below that are reaching to the decoding centre of the small ribosomal subunit. It raises awareness of the structure and function of uS12, uS19, eS25 and eS30, their evolution, role within the ribosome, and the influence they have on various stages of translation. In particular, this thesis specifically reviews the importance of these four proteins for the stop codon readthrough. This phenomenon occurs when a near-cognate aminoacyl-tRNA or a natural suppressor tRNA wins with eRF1 over the corresponding stop codon and thus protein synthesis is continued resulting in the existence of a longer protein. It summarizes our current knowledge of its origin, molecular details of its mechanism, its existence in different species, benefits and disadvantages it brings to the life of a cell or even an organism, and finally it sums up all available knowledge for potential future use of readthrough in therapeutics. Key words: translation,...
Characterization of non-canonical RNA polymerase encoded by the yeast linear plasmids
Sýkora, Michal ; Vopálenský, Václav (advisor) ; Macíčková Cahová, Hana (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Transcription is the control point of gene expression. This process relies on protein complex of multisubunit RNA polymerases, which are extremely conserved among all cellular organisms. Transciption of extrachromosomal hereditary elements such as organelles, viruses and plasmids is dependent on host cellular RNA polymerases or intrinsic RNA polymerase is contained within these elements. Putative non-canonical two-subunit RNA polymerase is also encoded by linear cytoplasmic plasmids of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and most likely transcribes genes of these plasmids. Besides the two subunits of RNA polymerase encoded by linear plasmids of Kluyveromyces lactis there are another two estimated components of the transcription apparatus, namely capping enzyme that adds the cap to 5' mRNA ends and putative DExD/H box helicase. Characterization of the unique and underexplored transcription machinery of Kluyveromyces lactis plasmids was the principal objective of this work. The main goal was to: 1) clarify evolutionary origin of the linear plasmid transcription apparatus; 2) describe architecture of the linear plasmid transcription complex in vivo focused on putative RNA polymerase binding partners; 3) reveal mechanisms of transcription initiation and termination of the yeast linear plasmids. The main...
Noncanonical human eIF4Es in and out of the RNA granules
Frydrýšková, Klára ; Pospíšek, Martin (advisor) ; Půta, František (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E1 (eIF4E1) plays a pivotal role in the control of cap-dependent translation initiation, occurs in P- bodies and is important for the formation of stress granules (SG). Human cells encompass two other non-canonical translation initiation factors capable of cap binding although with a lower affinity for the cap: eIF4E2 and eIF4E3. Here, I investigated the ability of individual eIF4E family members and their variants to localize to SGs and P-bodies in stress-free, arsenite and heat shock conditions. Under all tested conditions, both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 proteins and all their variants localized to P-bodies unlike eIF4E3 protein variants. Under both arsenite and heat stress conditions all tested variants of eIF4E1 and the variant eIF4E3-A localized to SGs albeit with different abilities. Protein eIF4E2 and all its investigated variants localized specifically to a major part of heat stress-induced stress granules. Further analysis showed that approximately 75% of heat stress-induced stress granules contain all three eIF4Es, while in 25% of them eIF4E2 is missing. Large ribosomal subunit protein L22 was found specifically enriched in arsenite induced SGs. Heat stress-induced re- localization of several proteins typical for P-bodies such as eIF4E2, DCP-1, AGO-2...
Binding of eIF3 in complex with eIF5 and eIF1 to the 40S ribosomal subunit is accompanied by dramatic structural changes
Zeman, Jakub ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Štefl, Richard (referee) ; Man, Petr (referee)
In eukaryotic translation, eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are at least as important as the ribosome itself. Some of these factors play different roles throughout the entire process to ensure proper assembly of the preinitiation complex on mRNA, accurate selection of the initiation codon, errorless production of the encoded polypeptide and its proper termination. Perhaps, the most important factor integrating signals from others and coordinating their functions on the ribosome is eIF3. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eIF3 is formed by five subunits. All these subunits contain structural motifs responsible for contact with ribosomal proteins and RNAs. In addition to these highly structured parts, the rest of eIF3 is unstructured and very flexible. Therefore, despite the recent progress thanks to the use of a cryo-electron microscopy, a precise structure and position of eIF3 on the 40S ribosomal subunit are still not known. Also, the presence of eIF3 on 80S during early elongation and its role in reinitiation and readthrough are not fully understood. In order to crack mysteries of yeast eIF3, we used x-ray crystallography, chemical cross- linking coupled to mass spectrometry, and various biochemical and genetic assays. We demonstrated that eIF3 is very compactly packed when free in solution. This...
Molecular details of translation reinitiation in budding yeast
Mohammad, Mahabub Pasha ; Valášek, Leoš (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee) ; Krásný, Libor (referee)
Eukaryotic translation initiation is a complex multi-step process. It begins with the formation of 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC), which binds to the 5' cap of the mRNA, scans downstream searching for an appropriate AUG start site. Upon AUG recognition by 48S PIC, most of the initiation factors dissociate. However, some initiation factors, such as eIF3 and may be eIF4G, remain transiently associated with the 48S PIC. Here, we have developed a yeast in vivo RNA-Protein Ni2+ -Pull down (Rap-Nip) assay for in vivo detection of eIF3 bound mRNA fragments. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrated showing that, after initiation, eIF3 persistently associated with the elongating ribosomes for few elongation cycles. Further, it stabilizes the post- termination 40S complex on the stop codon of both uORF1 and 2 by establishing a contact between the N-terminal domain of a/TIF32 subunit and the Reinitiation Promoting Elements (RPEs) of corresponding uORFs on GCN4. Furthermore, employing the β-galactosidase reporter assays we revealed that AU-rich motif (AU1-2A/ UUAU2 motif) that occurs immediately following the stop codon of reinitiation (REI)- permissive uORFs promotes REI in position-specific autonomous fashion. We also have shown that the exact length and the last coding triplet of the REI-permissive...
Factors interacting with bacterial RNA polymerase and their effect on the regulation of transcription initiation
Ramaniuk, Volha ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
(ENGLISH) The bacterial cell needs to regulate its gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the pivotal enzyme of this process and its activity is controlled by a number of auxiliary factors. Here I focus on RNAP-associating factors involved in regulation of transcription in G+ bacteria:  factors, initiating nucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs), HelD, δ and small RNA Ms1. The main emphasis is on σ factors from Bacillus subtilis. σ factors allow RNAP to specifically recognize promoter DNA. In my first project I set up in vitro transcription systems with purified alternative σ factors, σB , σD , σH , σI from B. subtilis. Using these systems, I studied the effect of initiating NTP concentration ([iNTP]) on transcription initiation. I showed that promoters of alternative  factors are often regulated by [iNTP]. In the next project I comprehensively characterized one of the least explored alternative  factors from B. subtilis, I . I identified ~130 genes affected by I , though only 16 of them were directly affected. Moreover, I discovered that I is involved in iron metabolism. Finally, I showed that I binding requires not only the conserved -35 and -10 hexamers, but also extended -35 and -10 elements located in the spacer region. In collaboration with...

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2 Valášek, Lukáš
1 Valášek, Ľuboš
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