National Repository of Grey Literature 85 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Where transcription meets translation
Hegrová, Karolína ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
Transcription and translation are key steps in gene expression. The RNA polymerase (RNAP) plays a major role in the transcription process, while the ribosome is involved in translation. In bacteria, these two processes are not separated. RNAP and the ribosome interact, and its called transcription- translation coupling. In this thesis, I discuss the mechanism of transcription and translation, with the main focus on transcription-translation interactions. I divide these interactions into indirect, which are caused by regulátory molecules, and direct, where the ribosome directly binds with RNAP. When physical binding occurs, either a tight junction between these molecules occurs or a bridge is formed by transcription factors. Then I describe regulatory function of this connection and explain the exceptions where transcription and translation don't link. In the last part of the thesis, I focus on elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), its important role in metabolism, its interactions with MreB protein, and how this factor is used by some bacteriophages. Finally, I mention its possible role in transcription-translation interactions. Key words: transcription, translation, transcription-translation coupling, RNA polymerase, ribosome, transcription factors, EF-Tu
Expression, localisation, and interactome of the RefZ protein during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Paliesková, Anna Mária ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Nešvera, Jan (referee)
Bacillus subtilis is a gram-positive sporulating bacterium. Under unfavorable conditions, it initiates the sporulation process that results in a resistant spore. The transcription factor Spo0A is a master regulator of sporulation initiation. The hallmark of sporulation is the formation of an asymmetric septum near a cell pole, which divides the cell into the larger mother cell and smaller prespore. The asymmetric septum is localized at 1/6 of the cell length relative to the nearer pole. One of the players involved in this localization is the RefZ protein, referred to as the FtsZ regulatory protein, which forms the Z-ring. The Z-ring is important for the formation of both the vegetative (mid-cell) and asymmetric septa. RefZ facilitates the relocalization of the Z-ring from midcell to the poles at an early stage of sporulation. RefZ also binds DNA (RefZ binding motifs [RBMs]) near the ori site of the chromosome, thereby promoting precise positioning of the chromosome arms during sporulation. The entire sporulation process is controlled by a cascade of compartment-specific sporulation σ factors that recognize specific consensus sequences in the promoter regions of genes, thereby allowing RNA polymerase to initiate transcription of sporulation-specific genes. These σ factors ensure spatially and...
Regulation of mycobacterial transcription
Kafka, Vojtěch ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Dostálová, Hana (referee)
RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of RNA. Mycobacterial RNAP significantly differs from RNAPs from other bacterial species. It requires special transcription factors such as RbpA or CarD. Another difference is the presence of a small RNA (sRNA), Ms1, that binds to mycobacterial RNAP. Ms1 regulates the amount of RNAP in the cell. In our laboratory we recently discovered MoaB2, a new binding partner of mycobacterial A (encoded by sigA), an RNAP subunit, which is essential for recognition of the initial promoter sequence and initiation of transcription. The function of MoaB2 in the regulation of transcription and gene expression is still unknown. The first aim of this Thesis is contribute to elucidation of the mechanism by which Ms1 affects the amount of RNAP. The experiments revealed that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription; Ms1 affects the activity of promoter(s) that drive the transcription of rpoB- rpoC that encode the two catalytic subunits of RNAP. The second aim of this Thesis is to characterize the interactions of MoaB2 with protein of the transcription apparatus. The results confirmed the interaction of MoaB2 with A and showed that neither RNAP nor transcription factors RbpA and CarD are required for this interaction. Finally, a role of the...
The omega subunit of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase.
Mikesková, Klára ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Nešvera, Jan (referee)
Transcription is catalysed by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP). RNAP contains a core made up of two α subunits, one of each β, β'and ω. These subunits are conserved in all bacteria. The ω subunit is a small subunit with a molecular weight of 7.6 kDa that binds β'. ω is important for the folding and integrity of RNAP and promoter selection. This was shown by experiments performed with Gram-negative bacteria but the knowledge about  in Gram-positive bacteria is minimal. In my Diploma Thesis, I characterized  from the model Gram-positive bacterium from the phylum Firmicutes, Bacillus subtilis. First, I prepared various expression strains for isolation of Bacillus subtilis ω. Then, I successfully isolated the ω subunit, which was the main initial aim of this Diploma Thesis. Subsequently, I tested the influence of the ω subunit on in vitro transcription by RNAP associated with the primary σA factor and alternative σF and σE factors that regulate sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. I also evaluated the effect of , a small RNAP subunit found in Firmicutes, both alone and in combination with . The experiments revealed that ω stimulated transcription both from vegetative promoters and sporulation-related promoters. Moreover, this stimulation was synergistically amplified by the δ subunit. This nicely...
The delta subunit of RNA polymerase from gram positive bacteria
Matějčková, Jitka ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Beranová, Jana (referee)
1 Abstrakt Aby bakteriální buňka přežila neustále se měnící podmínky, musí se na ně adaptovat. Tato adaptace je podmíněna změnou genové exprese. Klíčovým krokem genové exprese je transkripce. Hlavním enzymem bakteriální transkripce je RNA polymerasa (RNAP), což je esenciální vícepodjednotkový enzym. RNAP je nejvíce prostudována u Escherichia coli, modelového organismu gram negativních bakterií. Porovnala jsem E. coli a Bacillus subtilis (zástupce gram pozitivních bakterií) a shrnula jsem rozdíly v RNAP a transkripci. Jejich RNA polymerasy se liší přítomností podjednotky δ u gram pozitivních bakterií. Tato podjednotka zvyšuje promotorovou selektivitu, recykluje jádro RNAP a celkově stimuluje syntézu RNA. Podjednotka δ ovlivňuje sporulaci a virulenci některých bakterií. V této práci jsem shromáždila současné poznatky o jednotlivých částech genové exprese, zejména o regulaci iniciace transkripce a o podjednotce δ RNAP.
Factors interacting with bacterial RNA polymerase and their effect on the regulation of transcription initiation
Ramaniuk, Volha ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee) ; Valášek, Leoš (referee)
(ENGLISH) The bacterial cell needs to regulate its gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the pivotal enzyme of this process and its activity is controlled by a number of auxiliary factors. Here I focus on RNAP-associating factors involved in regulation of transcription in G+ bacteria:  factors, initiating nucleoside triphosphates (iNTPs), HelD, δ and small RNA Ms1. The main emphasis is on σ factors from Bacillus subtilis. σ factors allow RNAP to specifically recognize promoter DNA. In my first project I set up in vitro transcription systems with purified alternative σ factors, σB , σD , σH , σI from B. subtilis. Using these systems, I studied the effect of initiating NTP concentration ([iNTP]) on transcription initiation. I showed that promoters of alternative  factors are often regulated by [iNTP]. In the next project I comprehensively characterized one of the least explored alternative  factors from B. subtilis, I . I identified ~130 genes affected by I , though only 16 of them were directly affected. Moreover, I discovered that I is involved in iron metabolism. Finally, I showed that I binding requires not only the conserved -35 and -10 hexamers, but also extended -35 and -10 elements located in the spacer region. In collaboration with...
Study of effect of Bacillus subtilis yxkO gene on motility during stress response to osmotic upshift.
Streitová, Eliška ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee)
Bacillus subtilis is gram-positive soil bacteria. In its natural environment it is constantly exposed to changes of chemical and physical conditons, including changes of osmolality. It responds to high osmolality by transporting of potassium ions and afterthat transporting and/or synthetising of compatible solutes. In last years the mutant strain Bacillus subtilis L-42 was isolated with non-specific insertional mutagenesis (mini Tn10) in our laboratory. This strain displays limited growth and inability to cope with hyperosmotic shock in a defined medium with potassium concentration of < 1 mmol/l. Insertion of transposon was located in yxkO gene which encodes a protein of unknown biological function. Some other data also indicate a possible role of disruption of yxkO gene in regulation of expression of hag gene, which encodes flagelin - a pivotal protein of bacterial flagellum. The goal of this thesis was to clarify if the disruption of yxkO gene influences motility and whether is affected the transcription of hag gene. With integrative vector pMUTIN4 a mutant strain with specific mutation of yxkO gene was prepared. Vector was pasted into chromosome of Bacillus subtilis strain 1A839 - genotype of this strain allows to extrude the known transcriptional regulation of hag gene. Cell's motility was...
delta subunit of bacterial RNA pol and its role in regulation of gene expression in B. subtilis
Dvořáček, Lukáš ; Krásný, Libor (advisor) ; Vopálenský, Václav (referee)
Delta subunit of bacterial RNA pol and its role in regulation of gene expression in B. subtilis. In this work I focus on regulation of eubacterial gene expression. First, I describe recent knowledge about a key stage of gene expression - transcription, focusing on regulation of trancription iniciation via small effector molecules (guanosine tetraphosphate, initiating nucleoside triphosphate) that are important for the regulation of ribosomal RNA. Second, in the experimental part of my work, I focus on the role of the _ protein, a subunit of RNA polymarase in gram positive bacteria, in transcription iniciation and its effects on regulation of RNA polymerase by the concentration of initiating nucleoside triphosphates.
Mapping of regulatory elements within 5' region of the Disp3 locus
Oltová, Jana ; Bartůněk, Petr (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee)
Dispatched 3 (Disp3), a thyroid hormone-regulated gene, is studied extensively in our laboratory. Phenotype of cells with overexpressed Disp3 and its expression pattern make it a perfect candidate for a molecular link between thyroid hormone action and cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. Moreover, we hypothesize that it might play a role in certain neurodegenerative disorders and brain tumours. This thesis is aimed at the process of regulation of this gene via thyroid hormone receptor (TR), specifically identification of responsive elements of the thyroid hormone receptor that are necessary for the regulation. Also, we searched for elements recognized by liver X receptor (LXR), as LXR binds to the same arrangement of repeats as TR and there are a number of genes regulated by both of them. We combined in silico analysis of the Disp3 locus with reporter luciferase assays. A cluster of six elements identified around the first exon with two of them being conserved among human and mice draw our attention. In order to analyze this sequence in more detail, reporter vectors of various truncations of 3 kb region around exon 1 were constructed and tested in reporter assays. Reporter assays did not reveal any substantial element activated by TR or LXR; on the other hand, region containing repressor element(s)...

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