National Repository of Grey Literature 71 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Molecular logic of the Notch ligands in development and disease
Trampotová, Eliška ; Mašek, Jan (advisor) ; Rozbeský, Daniel (referee)
The Notch signalling pathway is one of the key signal transduction pathways in the embryonic development of all metazoa. In mammals, the "canonical" signalling occurs on four Notch receptors, and it is triggered by five ligands varying in both their structures and functions. The importance of the pathway for embryonic development is reflected by the fact that mutations of either receptors or ligands result in various congenital disorders. A prime example is the Alagille syndrome - a rare multisystemic condition caused by mutations of the Notch ligand Jagged1 in 94 % of cases. Much of the research effort so far was concentrated into elucidating how the Notch receptors operate, however one could argue the importance of ligand activity regulation is even higher. This thesis thus aims to provide a comprehensive comparison of the five mammalian Notch ligands' structures and roles in developmental processes. The main focus of the thesis is the variability of ligand-receptor interactions and biophysical mechanisms of signalling, highlighting the importance of the Notch ligands' intracellular domains' interactions.
Cytoskeletal orchestration of early mammalian development
Novotný, Jan ; Libusová, Lenka (advisor) ; Mašek, Jan (referee)
Structures of the cytoskeleton play a critical role in early mammalian development. Microtubules, intermediate filaments and actin microfilaments provide structural and mechanical basis for major developmental transitions of preimplantation development. Microvilli supported by bundles of actin filaments become restricted to one pole of the blastomere during the process of polarisation. All components of the cytoskeleton network undergo apparent reorganisation in embryo compaction. Cells flatten and adhere to each other thanks to the formation of cytoskeleton-linked intercellular junctions and oscillatory contractions generated by actomyosin complexes. Filopodia, actin based protrusions, are debated for their potential role in blastomere apposition and cell signalling. The first process of cell line specification in mammalian development is that which defines outer cells of morula as presumptive trophectoderm and inner cells as presumptive inner cell mass. Proteins and structures of cytoskeleton are asymmetrically distributed between these two populations helping to determine the fate of each blastomere. The aim of the thesis is to summarise the roles of cytoskeleton in blastomere polarisation, embryo compaction and specification of inner and outer cell populations in mammalian preimplantation...
Wingless/Notch crosstalk in Drosophila melanogaster
Hajšmanová, Hana ; Mašek, Jan (advisor) ; Macůrková, Marie (referee)
Fundamental for the existence of multicellular organisms is the presence signalling pathways, complex biochemical cascades, allowing reciprocal communication amongst the cells. Both Notch and Wnt pathways are crucial for embryonic development and their deregulation leads to many severe diseases. Decades of research, largely based on model organism D. melanogaster, showed that components of these pathways do not function strictly separately but on contrary interact with each other (crosstalk). This phenomenon is explored only to a lesser extent in mammals. The aim of this thesis is to recapitulate existing findings of Wnt/ Notch crosstalk in D. melanogaster and outline where crosstalk could play a role in mammals.
Role of NEUROD1 transcriptional network on the development and function of inner ear neurons
Merc, Veronika ; Pavlínková, Gabriela (advisor) ; Mašek, Jan (referee)
Identification of transcription factors involved in a complex network regulating the development of neurosensory cells in the inner ear is a key point for understanding the pathophysiology of hearing loss, development of new therapeutic tools, and for hearing loss prevention. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the function of the transcription factor NEUROD1 in the development of the inner ear and sensory neurons. Using the Cre-loxP recombination system, a unique mouse model was created with tissue-specific deletion of Neurod1 in NEUROD1-Cre positive cells (Neurod1ST). In the inner ear, Neurod1 was deleted only in neurons permitting to identify the secondary effects of Neurod1 elimination in neurons on sensory cell development. We showed that neither the early development of the inner ear nor the formation of the statoacoustic ganglia was significantly affected by Neurod1 deletion. The primary consequence of the deletion was manifested by increased neuronal death due to apoptosis, which resulted in a reduced number of differentiated neurons in the inner ear. Spiral and vestibular ganglia were smaller in the mutants, and there was a number of neurons misplaced, indicating impaired migration. The cochlear sensory epithelium was shortened probably due to the reduced number of neurons within the...
Selected Business Aspects of Insolvency Proceedings
Mašek, Jan ; Černá, Stanislava (advisor) ; Zahradníčková, Marie (referee)
Thesis: Selected Business Aspects of Insolvency Proceedings The reason why I have decided for my thesis topic is that the connection between business law and insolvency law is a field which has not been studied comprehensively so far. However my opinion is that these law branches have a lot in common as we can see daily their intersection in many insolvency proceeding. Object of this thesis is to describe the main areas in which clashes insolvency law with business law and then define questions which issue from this clash and answer those on which the Insolvency Act and Business Code do not offer clear answers. As I mentioned the connection between insolvency and business law is not focused comprehensively by doctrine. Therefore I work particularly with decided cases and legal interpretation books as sources for my thesis. The text offers two points of views on this topic. The first is aimed to company (especially its statutory body) which becomes insolvent. The second is aimed to third parties who do business with an insolvent company. The first part of my thesis is engaged in short description of historical development of insolvency law in Czech. Then it is focused on explanation of basic insolvency terminology in context of business law. The second part of the thesis deals with duties of...
Commented translation:Introductory: Language Defined (E.Sapir: Language: An Introductionto the Study of Speech, 1921)
Mašek, Jan ; Jettmarová, Zuzana (advisor) ; Mraček, David (referee)
The thesis consists of a Czech translation of the first chapter, Introductory: Language Defined, from Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech (New York: 1921, Harcourt, Brace and Company) by Edward Sapir and of a commentary on the translation. The commentary consists of a translation analysis of the source text, typology of translation problems and their solutions, and typology of translation shifts. The translation method was chosen based on the analysis, which was based on the method of Ch. Nord. The main objective of the translation was to preserve the informative function of the source text and it's style with regard to the documentary function of the translation and the conventions and constraints of the target language.
Detection and Correction of Inconsistencies in the Multilingual Treebank HamleDT
Mašek, Jan ; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Mareček, David (referee)
We studied the treebanks included in HamleDT and partially unified their label sets. Afterwards, we used a method based on variation n-grams to automatically detect errors in morphological and dependency annotation. Then we used the output of a part-of-speech tagger / dependency parser trained on each treebank to correct the detected errors. The performance of both the detection and the correction of errors on both annotation levels was manually evaluated on a randomly selected samples of suspected errors from several treebanks. Powered by TCPDF (
Broadband radiation scheme fully interacting with clouds
Mašek, Ján ; Brožková, Radmila (advisor) ; Bednář, Jan (referee) ; Kubátová, Brankica (referee)
The parameterization of radiative transfer is a part of numerical weather prediction and general circulation models that is both essential and computationally very expensive, and is therefore subject to never­ending compromises between accuracy and computational cost. The present thesis offers an improvement to the existing broadband radiation scheme by revising its critical components - gaseous transmissions, cloud optical properties, and calculation of internal longwave exchanges. The accuracy of the full­spectrum broadband approach is thus raised to the level required for the short range numerical weather forecast. The intermittent update of broadband gaseous transmissions is introduced as a new component, reducing computational cost while preserving the full cloud­radiation interaction. The scalability of longwave computations is ensured by adopting the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing, improved by an intermittently applied self­learning algorithm determining the interpolation weights. It has been demonstrated that under conditions of operational weather forecasting, this developed scheme is fully competitive with the mainstream approach, due to the improved error balance between the...
Novel substrates of cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases: identification and functional characterisation
Liďák, Tomáš ; Čermák, Lukáš (advisor) ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (referee) ; Mašek, Jan (referee)
Selective protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis and the regulation of diverse biological processes. The selectivity of this system is imparted by hundreds of ubiquitin ligases that specifically recognise substrates and catalyse their ubiquitination, thereby targeting them for degradation. Among ubiquitin ligases, multisubunit cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases constitute the largest group. However, despite significant advances in understanding their assembly, regulation, and molecular architecture, the substrates and functions of most of them remain unknown. This thesis focuses on two ubiquitin ligases from the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) subfamily: CRL4DCAF4 and CRL4DCAF12 . To identify their candidate substrates and to address their biological roles, several different approaches have been employed. First, proteomic screening revealed a wide range of candidate substrates. Next, detailed characterisation of the identified interactions and exploration of the condition under which candidate substrates undergo degradation was performed. Finally, knockout human cell lines and mice with a targeted disruption of genes encoding DCAF4 and DCAF12 were generated to explore the physiological roles of CRL4DCAF4 and CRL4DCAF12 . In summary, the herein...
Regeneration of heart muscle in vertebrates
Bergelová, Barbora ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Mašek, Jan (referee)
Fish model organisms such a Danio rerio have the ability to regenerate heart muscle during its whole lifespan. Compared to Danio rerio, the ability of heart regeneration differs in amphibians. While the newt has the ability to regenerate its heart tissue throughout its whole life, the Xenopus leavis loses its power when it goes through metamorphosis. The regenerative ability varies not only between genera but also between species. For example compared to Xenopus leavis, Xenopus tropicalis has the ability to regenerate its heart tissue even in adulthood. Mammals have a very limited ability to regenerate their heart muscle. We can observe the ability to regenerate heart after injury in mice and humans for a very limited time of a few days after birth. In adulhood the heart is healed via rich collagen scar. It is vital that signaling pathways in highly regenerative model organisms are intensively studied, so that the knowledge gained may help us in the treatment of heart injuries in humans. Key words: regeneration, heart muscle, repair, zebrafish, mammals, amphibians, heart development, vertebrates

National Repository of Grey Literature : 71 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
13 MAŠEK, Jiří
3 MAŠEK, Josef
11 Mašek, Jakub
5 Mašek, Jaroslav
13 Mašek, Jiří
3 Mašek, Josef
27 Mašek, Ján
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.