National Repository of Grey Literature 117 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Marginal Abatement Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Meta-Analysis
Křížková, Alžběta ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Ščasný, Milan (referee)
This thesis uses up-to-date meta-analysis methods to produce a systematic summary of the literature on marginal abatement costs (MAC) of greenhouse gas emissions. It collects 242 MAC estimates for 2030 and 2050 from 59 studies. Besides the usual tests for publication bias, the study employs several modern non-linear tests, such as the TOP 10, the Kink method, the Stem method, and others. Subsequently, Bayesian model averaging is performed for the first time in MAC literature to reveal a mild negative publication bias for the MAC in 2050. The thesis reveals that newer studies provide higher estimates of MAC. Other factors influencing MAC estimation are the size of stabilisation targets, emissions baseline, utilising the LEAP model, the inclusion of other greenhouse gases besides carbon dioxide, and considering the long-run decision making. Several robustness checks are conducted along the way to confirm the selection of the dataset and the robustness of the BMA analysis (using weighted BMA, FMA, OLS). The true value of MAC in 2030 corrected for publication bias is around 32 EUR/tCO2-eq, while for 2050, it is 59 EUR/tCO2-eq. 1
Independence and Transmission of Monetary Policy in Small Open Economies: The Case of Canada and the Czech Republic
Budinský, Jan ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Buliskeria, Nino (referee)
The question of whether a small open economy (SOE) with highly integrated financial markets can shield itself from the influence of foreign monetary policy and preserve its monetary independence has been the subject of extensive research over the last decades. The growing integration of world economies owing to globalization, the impacts of recent global pandemic on them leading to the use of unconventional monetary policies, and the consequent high levels of inflation across the globe have highlighted the importance of further study of this problematic. This thesis focuses on two small open economies from different currency areas, Canada and the Czech Republic, and evaluates the monetary policies of their central banks, concentrating primarily on their independence, secondarily on the transmission mechanism of the respective policies, and also on their foreign exchange reserves. A comparative analysis of these two countries and their monetary policies on such scale and complexity has not yet been made before. The results of cointegration testing of vector autoregression models consisting of three-month interbank interest rates representing the monetary policies of the countries under investigation revealed that both Canada and the Czech Republic exhibited a considerable degree of monetary...
Should Central Banks Try to Make Profit on their FX Reserves?
Tabášek, Jakub ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Molnár, Vojtěch (referee)
The first part of the thesis uses vector autoregressions to examine the influence of foreign reserves on macroeconomic variables. The results suggest an econom- ically significant influence on both household consumption and gross capital formation in Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Indonesia, while in the Philippines and South Korea the influence seems rather weak. However, there is some un- certainty surrounding the results and the relationships may be unstable through time, suggesting that the question is worth revisiting in the future. The second part deals with the management of foreign reserves and in- vestigates whether the long-term management by the Monetary Authority of Singapore, which entails the objective of providing a regular income stream to the government budget, could be an option for other central banks. Given the similarity of objectives, the discussion builds on a comparison with the man- agement practices of large U.S. university endowments and suggests that the comparison seems to yield interesting insights pertaining to asset allocation. However, constraints stemming from the size of central bank portfolios and challenges having to do with expertise and management may have implications for the overall stability of investment returns. Given the specific character of a central...
European Central Bank Digital Currencies: Lessons from Central Bank Experiments and Scenario Analysis
Pramod Kumar, Kumar Chandrakamal ; Dědek, Oldřich (advisor) ; Havránek, Tomáš (referee) ; Ramesh, Sangaralingam (referee)
The dramatic increase in popularity of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin has motivated central banks to research central bank digital currencies (CBDC). The key central bank R-CBDC experiments are reviewed. It is found that central banks of advanced economies like the Federal Reserve, European Central Bank and Swiss National Bank are relatively less motivated to issue R-CBDC. This is because current retail payment systems and settlements are already fast and efficient and the advantages of R-CBDC may not be as large as initially expected. Financial inclusion and need for traceable payment systems is less attractive in advanced economies and central banks would lose credibility if CBDC were implemented unsuccessfully. A scenario analysis is used to explore the implications of R-CBDC on financial stability and monetary policy. The results show that CBDC implementation in all scenarios is expected to positively impact financial stability and monetary policy. Results from the scenario analysis are more optimistic than the literature and urges central banks to continue their research. Finally, it is found that ECB's ability to issue CBDC is uncertain. The risks to traditional monetary policy tools and banking system should encourage both to become more efficient and focus on the needs of users.
The Price Elasticity of the Demand for Higher Education: A Meta-Analysis
Kiiashko, Olesia ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Korbel, Václav (referee)
The main question of this study is whether the demand for higher education is relatively sensitive to tuition fee changes or is price inelastic. There is no definite answer in the literature. Approximately 52% of the estimates show it to be insignificant, 43% rate it as statistically negative, and approximately 5% are statistically positive. In a quantitative survey of 562 estimates reported in 48 studies, it has been found that large increases in tuition fees have a disproportionately negative impact on enrollment when potential publication bias and method heterogeneity are taken into account. The publication bias tests show that negative results are more preferable among researchers, because it is well supported by theory (when prices increase demand decreases). The results also suggest that four aspects of study design are especially effective in explaining the differences across primary studies: (1) the longer time period negatively associated with the price c of demand for higher education, (2) while the cross sectional estimations have reported more negative results, panel data estimations have reported fewer negative results, (3) controlling for endogeneity is crucial, (4) while controlling for unemployment rate has no clear conclusive impact, controlling for income is not significantly...
Income Elasticity of Water Demand: A Meta-Analysis
Vlach, Tomáš ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Červinka, Michal (referee)
If policymakers address water scarcity with the demand-oriented approach, the income elasticity of water demand is of pivotal importance. Its estimates, however, differ considerably. We collect 307 estimates of the income elasticity of water demand reported in 62 studies, codify 31 variables describing the estimation design, and employ Bayesian model averaging to address model uncertainty inherent to any meta-analysis. The studies were published between 1972 and 2015, which means that this meta-analysis covers a longer period of time than two previous meta-analyses on this topic combined. Our results suggest that income elasticity estimates for developed countries do not significantly differ from income elasticity estimates for developing countries and that different estimation techniques do not systematically produce different values of the income elasticity of water demand. We find evidence of publication selection bias in the literature on the income elasticity of water demand with the use of both graphical and regression analysis. We correct the estimates for publication selection bias and estimate the true effect beyond bias, which reaches approximately 0.2. 1
Liquidity on euro area money markets and unconventional monetary policy
Majerová, Barbora ; Adam, Tomáš (advisor) ; Havránek, Tomáš (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to estimate the effectiveness of the ECB's measures, namely of the Long-term refinancing operations (LTROs), on the liquidity and credit risk components. These components are estimated according De Socio (2011) methodology, which derives them from the Euribor-Eonia swap spread. The author's hypothesis, that the LTROs have a higher impact on liquidity risk and very small impact on the credit risk, has been confirmed based on impulse response functions from a VAR model. Other parts of the thesis introduce the development on the financial markets during the period 2002 - mid 2007; the liquidity (market, funding and central bank liquidity) and liquidity risks connected to them; development of secured and unsecured money market rates and more importantly the ECB's unconventional monetary policy measures, which were conducted since the crises started.
How Can the Czech National Bank Eliminate the Zero Lower Bound on Interest Rates? A Case Study
Katinová, Alexandra ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kolcunová, Dominika (referee)
The thesis provides case study research on the feasibility of the negative in- terest rate policy in the context of the Czech Republic. No major obstacles opposing the policy itself were found in the bases of the Czech legal system, however, a list of acts explicitly affected by the value of policy rates needs to be adjusted to prevent misinterpretations. Moreover, it was identified that tax prepayments held by the Tax Authority and free reserves kept at the Czech National Bank at zero interest rate create room for escaping from the policy. Additionally, debt repayments in cash and interest-free accounts of government and public institutions administrated by the Czech National Bank could lead to undesirable advantages. A complementary VAR model analysis of the interest rate transmission under negative policy rates was performed to evaluate quan- titatively the experience from European countries, however, short data series available provided merely indicative results.
Corporate Acquisitions and Expected Stock Returns: A Meta-Analysis
Parreau, Thibault ; Havránek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kukačka, Jiří (referee)
This thesis aims at investigating the puzzling relationship between cor- porate acquisitions and expected stock returns by reviewing numerous studies on this topic through the use of state of the art meta-analysis tools. Such an analysis is required because many papers examined this relationship but their results varied. We therefore collected 421 estimates from 20 papers and led multiple regressions to test for the presence of publication bias. Throughout this analysis we indeed found evidence supporting the existence of publication bias. Furthermore, we decided to apply Bayesian Model Averaging to reduce the model uncertainty and find out why our abnormal returns estimates greatly vary across stud- ies. Our results suggest that one of the most important drivers are the standard-error terms. This subsequently proves that publication bias is the most responsible for the heterogeneity amongst our estimates. Our analysis fails to demonstrate any positive effects from M&A activity on a firm post-acquisition performance. We suggest that other motives are under-represented in the underlying theory that aims to assess M&A outcomes. Keywords Mergers and Acquisitions, Stock Returns, Abnormal Re- turns, Meta-Analysis, Publication bias Author's e-mail Supervisor's e-mail...

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27 Havránek, Tomáš
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