National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Elements characterization in urban aerosol
Hlaváčková, Hana ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Elements are important components of atmospheric aerosols. Heavy metals are known environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and their ability to accumulate in the human body. Heavy metals can exhibit toxicological afects even in trace amounts.
Simultaneous online determination of nitric acid and nitrates in ambient air
Alexa, Lukáš ; Čmelíková, D. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel
The innovated method for the simultaneous online determination of HNO3/NO3- in ambient air was developed. Due to high sensitivity of CLD (LOD = 5.1 nM in water solution, 3 s/n) no preconcentration method is required. The online methods were compared with the results obtained with the offline method based on sampling using filters and dry denuders (DD) covered by 0.5% NaF with subsequent analysis by ion chromatography (model ICS-2100, Dionex, USA) and capillary electrophoresis (model Agilent 7100, Agilent Technologies, USA).
Forest springs, a safe source of drinking water?
Mikuška, Pavel ; Alexa, Lukáš ; Kouřilová, S. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Křůmal, Kamil ; Itterheimová, Petra ; Kubáň, Petr ; Matoušek, Tomáš ; Barešová, Magdalena ; Pivokonský, Martin
Water from 25 forest springs was characterized for basic physical parameters and chemical and bacteriological composition. Chemical composition was mostly within limits for drinking water, but bacteriological results indicate faecal pollution of water in majority studied springs.
Elements' bioaccessibility and oxidative potential of urban aerosol
Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Atmospheric aerosols (Particulate Matter, PM) have significant impact on health and environment. The ability of aerosol to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the widely proposed mechanisms related to the negative effects of aerosol on human health. Oxidative stress, caused by the production of ROS, is associated with several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.\nThe capacity of aerosol to produce ROS is also called oxidative potential (OP). Although ROS generation capacity of PM exhibits a good correlation with PM mass concentration, it may depend more on physico-chemical properties of PM. Elements bound to PM play a significant role in contributing to the OP of aerosol. Exposure to elements was linked with several health issues (e.g. respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, asthma, inflammatory effects, lung cancer).
Parallel Determination of Particulate Ammonium by Using a Continuous Aerosol Sampler and Cascade Impactor
Alexa, Lukáš ; Hlaváčková, H. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel
Ammonia is a significant gaseous pollutant present in the atmosphere. As a neutralizing agent of acidic species ammonia forms particle-phase ammonium (NH4+) salts and contributes thus to formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols (Harrison and Jones, 1995). Aerosols (particulate matter, PM) are responsible for many negative effects on environments and health risks to human. The diameter of PM has significant impact on their environmental exposure, where the decreasing particle size increases the adverse health effects. The ultrafine particles hence play a major role in adverse impact on human health (Ryer-Powder, 1991). Presented paper describes the use of the novel continuous aerosol sampler for online, and a commercial cascade impactor for offline, determination of NH4+ in ambient air.
Oxidative Potential of PM1 and PM2.5 Urban Aerosol and Associated Elements in Three Simulated Lung Fluids
Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) has been used in several epidemiologic studies as an indicatior conenecting PM concentrations with human health effects (Ostro, 1993). However, mass concentration of PM doesn´t consider the different compositions and toxicological effects of its components. Majority of PM mass constitutes low-toxicity components, while minority of trace components may have high toxicological activity (Tonne, 2012). Oxidative potential (OP), defined as the ability of PM to induce oxidative stress, is in recent years recognized as one of the main biological mechanisms considered to be contributing to negative impacts from air pollution exposure. Oxidative stress is caused through the capability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the lung, which leads to pro-inflammatory responses that can ultimately results in cell apoptosis (Borlaza, 2021).
Total and Bioaccessible Fraction of Elements in Urban Aerosol
Mikuška, Pavel ; Cigánková, Hana ; Hegrová, J.
Atmospheric aerosols have significant impact on health and environment. Elements constitute an important particulate component which have received the attention to understand their environmental and health impacts. Elements enter the human body through inhalation of aerosols causing several health issue (asthma, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, lung cancer).\nThe potential health effects of elements in PM depend on their toxicity, concentration, and bioaccessibility. It is assumed that the bioaccessible fraction of elements is more relevant for evaluating human health risks than the total concentration of elements. The aim of this study was to determine the total and bioaccessible concentration of elements in urban PM1 and PM2.5 aerosol during four seasons.
Characterization of Metals in Atmospheric Aerosol
Cigánková, Hana ; Ličbinský, Roman (referee) ; Vojtíšek,, Michal (referee) ; Krajčovič, Jozef (advisor)
The presented doctoral thesis deals with the characterization of elements in two size fractions of urban aerosol, which was sampled in all seasons on the terrace of the Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the CAS in Brno in 2018. The theoretical part of the thesis summarizes the basic information about the analysis and health risks of atmospheric aerosol and metals bound to aerosol. Furthermore, the work describes methods for determining the inhalation bioaccessibility of aerosol particles and methods used for the determination of oxidative potential. The first part of the thesis describes in detail the sampling and analysis of urban aerosol particles. The mass concentration of both aerosol size fractions and the total concentration of 21 elements were determined. The probable sources of the analysed elements were calculated using the enrichment factor and positive matrix factorization. The second part of the thesis deals with the determination of the oxidative potential of the aerosol and bioaccessible concentration of the analysed elements in three simulated lung fluids (deionized water, simulated alveoli fluid, Gamble solution). In addition to determining the oxidative potential of real samples, the oxidative potential of individual elements was also analysed. From the obtained results was calculated the probable contribution of the elements to the measured oxidative potential.
Mixed lipids and their interaction with biopolymers
Cigánková, Hana ; Smilek, Jiří (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This thesis focuses on the study of interactions between hyaluronan and lipid DOTAP and its mixtures with DPPC in water. First, the aggregation behavior of the lipid itself and its mixtures was measured, afterwards the influence of hyaluronan in different concentration was studied. Further the fluorescence anisotropy of fluorescence probe DPH in these mixtures and influence of cholesterol was measured. These properties were investigated by fluorescence spectoscopy using pyrene and DPH as fluorescence probes. The measurements revealed that the addition of hyaluronan has observable influence on the aggregation behavior of the lipid DOTAP and its mixtures with DPPC and that cholesterol influences liposomes fluidity.
Children younger than 3 years old in kindergarten
The topic of this bachelor thesis is admitting children under than three years in Kindergarten. The teoretical part is focused on the developmental specifics of children from one to three years. A practical part contains interviews and questionnaires with teachers who work with this age group. The aim of this thesis is to develop a systematic procedure for working with children from one to three years in Kindergarten.

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