National Repository of Grey Literature 107 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Derivatization of Sodium Hyaluronate as a Possible Tool for Increasing of the Stability of Model Artificial Synovial Fluid
Hrochová, Eliška ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Kalina, Michal (advisor)
This master thesis deals with the optimization of the procedure of modification of hyaluronic acid structure for the use in the artificial synovial liquids. Based on the literature research, the amino acid alanine was used for the modification of carboxylic group in the glucuronic acid. The main subject of study is the improvement of the stability and mechanical properties of synovial liquid. DLS microrheology, macrorheology, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), multi-angle light scattering with flow-field flow fractionation (AF4-MALS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for characterization. The theoretical part of this theses submits review of the musculoskeletal system, role of hyaluronic acid in metabolism and summary of synovial liquid. The experimental part focuses on the measurement of the stability and mechanical properties of three artificial samples (first with no modification, second with modified hyaluronic acid and third with modified hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate). These samples were compared with real horse synovial fluid and artificial viscosupplement Orthovisc®.
Production of polyesters by extremophilic bacteria
Bednárová, Kristína ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Obruča, Stanislav (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the study of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates using thermophilic bacterial strains Schlegelella thermodepolymerans, Schlegelella aquatica and Thermomonas hydrothermalis. The aim of the thesis is to optimize the conditions of polymer production. In bacterial strains of the genus Schlegelella, phaC gene at the genotype level was confirmed. The ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates in the bacterial strain Thermomonas hydrothermalis at the phenotype level was demonstrated. The utilization of selected carbon sources was studied experimentaly. The production of PHA was optimized by selecting the appropriate substrate and cultivation temperature. The effect of precursors on the production of copolymers P(3HB-co-4HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) was observed. The most promising carbon substrate for bacterial strain Schlegelella aquatica was glycerol while the best metabolic activity was at 45 °C. Strain Thermomonas hydrothermalis was able to produce the copolymer P(3HB-co-4HB) with extreme high molar fraction of 4HB. Optimal cultivation temperature was 55 °C. The highest yield of P(3HB) among selected bacteria, synthesized Schlegelella thermodepolymerans cultivated on xylose at 55 °C. For this strain, the effect of aeration on biomass growth and PHA production was observed. In an effort to reduce production costs, Schlegelella thermodepolymerans was cultivated on model hydrolysates of lignocellulose-rich materials. Finally, batch cultivation in a larger production volume in laboratory fermentor was performed.
Solubilization in catanionic surfactant systems
Konečná, Anna ; Krouská, Jitka (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the solubilization of hydrophobic dyes in systems of positively charged catanionic vesicles. The aim of the work was to determine their solubilization capacity. Vesicular systems were prepared from oppositely charged surfactants CTAB and SDS. To increase the stability of the vesicles, cholesterol and the positively charged double-chain surfactant DODAC were added to their structure. DODAC also gave the system a positive charge. To determine the solubilization capacity, the dyes 1-Naphthol, Sudan Red G and Oil Red O were used. For sample preparation two methods were used, spontaneous and direct solubilization. The measurement was performed after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days from the preparation of the samples by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The solubilization capacity was determined from the measured absorbance by calculation from the calibration curves. The results indicate that direct solubilization is slightly more effective than spontaneous solubilization. Of the selected dyes, 1-Naphthol is the substance with the smallest molecule, and therefore it seems to be 100% solubilized in the vesicle system.
Fluorescence labeling of polysaccharides
Mrázová, Viktória ; Venerová, Tereza (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This bachelor’s dissertation deals with the study of fluorescence-marked polysaccharides. The aim of this project was to develop and define fluorescence-marked dextran, chitosan, hyaluronan, and their derivatives. These substances were developed by binding a fluorescent marker and a polysaccharide through covalent bonding. First, we developed samples of a polysaccharide that were marked with a fluorophore. For utilising this method, we considered suitable the following combinations: FITC+ dextran, FITC+ chitosan, and fluorescein amine+ hyaluronan. Following this, we defined these samples using a fluorescence spectrometer, which allowed us to measure the fluorescence properties of the derivatives of the selected marked polysaccharides. Using this measuring method, we found that a covalent bond does occur between the fluorescent marker and the polysaccharides. Finally, we compared the economic cost of developing these substances, as opposed to buying them commercially.
Stability of vesicular systems using fluorescence spectroscopy techniques
Máčala, Jakub ; Venerová, Tereza (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This thesis is focused on possibility of studying stability and fusion of catanionic vesicles with Förster resonance energy transfer. The mainly used technique was Time-Correlated single photon counting. Firstly, excitation and emission spectra of chosen probes were measured and donor-acceptor pairs were suggested: 5-hexadecanoylaminofluorescein with Octadecyl Rhodamine B, Bodipy 493/503 with rhodamine or DiI, perylene with fluorescein, DiO with DiI. Then, time-resolved measurements of suggested pairs from environment of catanionic vesicles with different content of cholesterol were made in order to track the FRET associated with fusion of vesicles. It was found out, that it is not possible to use DiO as a donor because of it’s inefficient solubilisation into vesicles. It is also not possible for Bodipy to be used as a donor, because of it‘s excimer formation. In case of using fluorescein as a donor, it was found, that there is ongoing homo-fret between fluorescein molecules. Thanks to this, fusion was tracked by addition of unstained vesicles. It was also possible to track fusion in longer period of time. Also perylene-fluorescein pair was found to be capable of tracking the fusion, but with the exception of vesicles with content of cholesterol of 43 mol. %, tracking of fusion was possible only in short period of time.
Diffusion of dyes in biopolymeric hydrogels
Vyroubal, David ; Mravec, Filip (referee) ; Klučáková, Martina (advisor)
This thesis is focused on diffusion of dyes in biopolymer-based hydrogels. These hydrogels are based on interaction between biopolymer-like electrolytes with oppositely charged surfactants. When polyelectrolytes interact with oppositely charged surfactants, micelle-like nano-containers can be formed. These nano-containers are able of binding hydrophobic compounds. In this study, combination of modified dextran (diethylaminoethyl dextran) with positive charge and oppositely charged sodium dodecylsulphate as surfactant was used for preparation of hydrogels. Next type of hydrogel was based on hyaluronan and positive charged surfactant Septonex (carbethoxypendecinium bromide). As a diffusion probes in hydrogels dyes Nile red and ATTO 488 were used. The diffusion of these dyes from aqeous solutions of NaCl or surfactants into hydrogels was monitored in time. Transport of dyes into structure of hydrogels was characterized by diffusion coefficients and structural parameters of hydrogels.
Influence of dispersion parameters on formation of vesicular systems
Vajcíková, Katarína ; Smilek, Jiří (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
The work describes a method for the preparation of catanionic vesicular systems using the method of ultrasonic dispersion in order to find the most suitable parameters for the preparation of a system with long–term physical stability. The parameters compared were the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave, the energy used for dispersion, and the volume of deionized water used to prepare a system consisting of the negatively charged surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the positively charged surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. To increase stability and provide a positive charge, the surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride was used and cholesterol was also added to increase stability. The individual systems were compared over time because of their size, zeta potential and turbidity of the solution. Particle size and polydispersity coefficient were measurement by the dynamic light scattering method. The zeta potential was determined by electrophoretic light scattering, and the turbidity was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometry based on the measurement of turbidity. The results present the most suitable parameters of ultrasonic dispersion using Bandelin SONOPULS UW 3200. The use of these parameters shows the emergence of systems with long–term physical stability, which means that they can be used for other applications.
Properties of aminoclay complexes and biologically active substances
Dušek, Jakub ; Pekař, Miloslav (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This paper builds on previous research of aminoclay complexes in undergraduate studies. Theoretical part deals with study of current problems of aminoclay complexes with bioactive substances and the choice of substances for complexing with aminoclay. The experimental part consists of preparation of aminoclay complexes with selected bioactive agents at various concentrations. Verification of binding of bioactive agents to the aminoclay matrix was performed by Elemental Analysis (EA) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For finding of the bound amount of bioactive substance were used the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC®) and analysis of the cytotoxic properties of the formed complexes by used by the MTT assay. The main motivation of this study is to create new complexes with improved characteristics that would replace existing forms of substances used in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
Preparation and characterization of catanionic complexes
Mušková, Alexandra ; Kalina, Michal (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
The diploma thesis deals with the preparation and characterization of catanionic complexes and their possible application to pharmaceutics and medicine. The catanionic complexes were prepared by mixing two oppositely charged surfactants with the concentration of 20 mmol·dm­3 in various volume ratios. Two systems were analyzed – CTAB + SDS and Septonex + SDS. Both systems were prepared in an aqueous and physiological environment. The turbidimetric analyses provided results of the intensity of turbidity of the prepared mixtures. The size and stability of the prepared particles were determined by DLS and ELS measurements. CTAB-rich samples showed significant viscosity changes and they were therefore characterized by rheological measurements. The results of this work show that the asymmetry of alkyl chains, surfactant selection, temperature, and ionic strength have a significant influence on the properties and self-assembly of surfactants in catanionic complexes.
Study of interaction of negatively charged vesicular systems with polycations
Repová, Romana ; Klučáková, Martina (referee) ; Mravec, Filip (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with the preparation and characterization of negatively charged catanionic vesicular systems and their combination with selected polycations. The catanionic vesicular system was prepared by mixing of two oppositely charged surfactants SDS and CTAB. The negative charge as well as the stability of the vesicular system was provided by the incorporation of phosphatidic acid. Polycations, DEAE and TMC, have been selected for use in a pharmaceutical applications. Characterization of the prepared systems was performed by measuring DLS and ELS. The results indicate that we were able to prepare stable negatively charged vesicles that were eligible to non-covalently interact with selected polycations.

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