National Repository of Grey Literature 124 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Elements characterization in urban aerosol
Hlaváčková, Hana ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Elements are important components of atmospheric aerosols. Heavy metals are known environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and their ability to accumulate in the human body. Heavy metals can exhibit toxicological afects even in trace amounts.
Simultaneous online determination of nitric acid and nitrates in ambient air
Alexa, Lukáš ; Čmelíková, D. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel
The innovated method for the simultaneous online determination of HNO3/NO3- in ambient air was developed. Due to high sensitivity of CLD (LOD = 5.1 nM in water solution, 3 s/n) no preconcentration method is required. The online methods were compared with the results obtained with the offline method based on sampling using filters and dry denuders (DD) covered by 0.5% NaF with subsequent analysis by ion chromatography (model ICS-2100, Dionex, USA) and capillary electrophoresis (model Agilent 7100, Agilent Technologies, USA).
Forest springs, a safe source of drinking water?
Mikuška, Pavel ; Alexa, Lukáš ; Kouřilová, S. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Křůmal, Kamil ; Itterheimová, Petra ; Kubáň, Petr ; Matoušek, Tomáš ; Barešová, Magdalena ; Pivokonský, Martin
Water from 25 forest springs was characterized for basic physical parameters and chemical and bacteriological composition. Chemical composition was mostly within limits for drinking water, but bacteriological results indicate faecal pollution of water in majority studied springs.
Elements' bioaccessibility and oxidative potential of urban aerosol
Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Atmospheric aerosols (Particulate Matter, PM) have significant impact on health and environment. The ability of aerosol to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the widely proposed mechanisms related to the negative effects of aerosol on human health. Oxidative stress, caused by the production of ROS, is associated with several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.\nThe capacity of aerosol to produce ROS is also called oxidative potential (OP). Although ROS generation capacity of PM exhibits a good correlation with PM mass concentration, it may depend more on physico-chemical properties of PM. Elements bound to PM play a significant role in contributing to the OP of aerosol. Exposure to elements was linked with several health issues (e.g. respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, asthma, inflammatory effects, lung cancer).
Organic compounds and markers from wood combustion in boilers used for household heating
Křůmal, Kamil ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Horák, J. ; Jaroch, M. ; Hopan, F. ; Kuboňová, L.
Organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and organic markers (monosaccharide anhydrides, diterpenoids) used for the identification of aerosol emission sources were measured in the emissions from the combustion of hard and soft wood. Wood was combusted in different boilers used for the residential heating in the Czech Republic, i.e., overfire boiler, boiler with down-draft combustion, gasification boiler and automatic boiler. Emission factors of particles and all measured organic compounds were the highest from the combustion of fuels in the oldest (overfire) boiler.
Parallel Determination of Particulate Ammonium by Using a Continuous Aerosol Sampler and Cascade Impactor
Alexa, Lukáš ; Hlaváčková, H. ; Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel
Ammonia is a significant gaseous pollutant present in the atmosphere. As a neutralizing agent of acidic species ammonia forms particle-phase ammonium (NH4+) salts and contributes thus to formation of secondary atmospheric aerosols (Harrison and Jones, 1995). Aerosols (particulate matter, PM) are responsible for many negative effects on environments and health risks to human. The diameter of PM has significant impact on their environmental exposure, where the decreasing particle size increases the adverse health effects. The ultrafine particles hence play a major role in adverse impact on human health (Ryer-Powder, 1991). Presented paper describes the use of the novel continuous aerosol sampler for online, and a commercial cascade impactor for offline, determination of NH4+ in ambient air.
Oxidative Potential of PM1 and PM2.5 Urban Aerosol and Associated Elements in Three Simulated Lung Fluids
Cigánková, Hana ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Hegrová, J.
Mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) has been used in several epidemiologic studies as an indicatior conenecting PM concentrations with human health effects (Ostro, 1993). However, mass concentration of PM doesn´t consider the different compositions and toxicological effects of its components. Majority of PM mass constitutes low-toxicity components, while minority of trace components may have high toxicological activity (Tonne, 2012). Oxidative potential (OP), defined as the ability of PM to induce oxidative stress, is in recent years recognized as one of the main biological mechanisms considered to be contributing to negative impacts from air pollution exposure. Oxidative stress is caused through the capability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the lung, which leads to pro-inflammatory responses that can ultimately results in cell apoptosis (Borlaza, 2021).
Total and Bioaccessible Fraction of Elements in Urban Aerosol
Mikuška, Pavel ; Cigánková, Hana ; Hegrová, J.
Atmospheric aerosols have significant impact on health and environment. Elements constitute an important particulate component which have received the attention to understand their environmental and health impacts. Elements enter the human body through inhalation of aerosols causing several health issue (asthma, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, lung cancer).\nThe potential health effects of elements in PM depend on their toxicity, concentration, and bioaccessibility. It is assumed that the bioaccessible fraction of elements is more relevant for evaluating human health risks than the total concentration of elements. The aim of this study was to determine the total and bioaccessible concentration of elements in urban PM1 and PM2.5 aerosol during four seasons.
Comparison of gradient measurement and modelling of deposition rate of ozone to spruce forest in locality Bílý Kříž.
Zapletal, M. ; Chroust, P. ; Večeřa, Zbyněk ; Mikuška, Pavel ; Cudlín, Pavel ; Urban, Otmar ; Pokorný, Radek ; Czerný, Radek ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Taufarová, Klára ; Marek, Michal V. ; Hůnová, I. ; Černikovský, L. ; Medlen, A.
Comparison of measured and modelled deposition rate of ozone to spruce forest in locality Bílý Kříž. Estimation of daily changes in deposition and stomatal flux of ozone into spruce forest.
Aerosol size distribution of PAH in urban atmosphere
Bendl, Jan ; Hovorka, Jan (advisor) ; Mikuška, Pavel (referee)
The aim of the study was to determine the 13 health risk PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, ideno(1,2,3-cd)perylene and coronene; c-PAU highlighted) in the fractions of size-segregated aerosol of the urban air in Ostrava (2012, 2014) and Mlada Boleslav (2013) at low temperatures in winter, and to verify experimentally a sampling artifact, i.e., to quantify PAHs in the gas phase. For the particle size separation high-volume cascade impactor Hi-Vol BGI 900 was used. PAHs were determined by HPLC-FLD/PDA. In Ostrava in 2012 during the winter inversion (up to -25 řC), mean concentration of 13 PAHs in aerosol was 432 ng.m-3 ; in fraction 10 - 1 µm 119 ng.m-3 , 1 - 0,5 µm 185 ng.m-3 , 0,5 - 0,17 µm 91 ng.m-3 , in fraction < 0,17 µm 37 ng.m-3 and in the gaseous phase of min. 40 ng.m-3 . In the most unfavorable day 2. 2. 2012 (-18.6 ř C) reached the 24-hour average of 13 PAHs 890 ng.m-3 , the sum of carcinogenic PAHs 237 ng.m-3 and benzo(a)pyrene 32.3 ng.m-3 . An irregular and different decline of PAHs concentrations after inversion was measured: in fraction 1 - 10 µm 2.8 times, 0.5 - 1 µm 4.2 times, 0.5 - 0.17 µm 4 times and for <0.17 µm up to 7.6 times....

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