National Repository of Grey Literature 29 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Diachronic changes in the morphology and sexual dimorphism of the skull in the territory of Bohemia and Moravia
Letošníková, Lenka ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Rmoutilová, Rebeka (referee)
This diploma thesis is devoted to diachronic changes in skull morphology and sexual dimorphism of the early modern and recent population from the territory of Bohemia and Moravia. The two populations are roughly 500 years apart in time, so it can be assumed that each group was affected by different environmental influences. While individuals from the early modern period, coming from the middle class, are assumed to be affected by unfavorable living conditions (insufficient hygiene, malnutrition, etc.), the recent population is exposed to more favorable socioeconomic conditions. A number of studies agree that quality living conditions have an effect on the morphology of the skull in the sense of narrowing and increasing the cranial vault, and at the same time have a positive effect on the manifestation of sexual dimorphism. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the variability and degree of sexual dimorphism in skull morphology and to describe diachronic changes of the skull in early modern and recent populations. According to the established hypotheses, we assume that the skull of the recent population will have a higher and narrower cranial vault and facial part as a result of the improvement of living conditions and will show more pronounced sexual dimorphism. A total of 174 skulls were analyzed...
What does teeth abrasion say about human life?
Praisová, Jitka ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Stránská, Petra (referee)
Tooth abrasion is a cause of tooth wear, which consists in decrease of a tooth substance as a result of friction between teeth and other objects than teeth. Based on these objects, we can divide abrasion into dietary abrasion, occupational abrasion and habitual abrasion. In case of dietary abrasion, there is a friction between teeth and aliment, or some non-nutriment substances. Occupational abrasion is a result of using teeth as a third hand. During habitual abrasion, teeth rub with objects, which are put into mouth due to some habit. This work pursues each type of abrasion and its connection to alinment and social and cultural aspects of human life, artificial tooth mutilation and prevention of abrasion are also discussed. Key words: tooth wear, abrasion, microabrasion, non-carious cervical lesions, tooth mutilation
Sexual dimorphism and interpopulation variability of the skull in time-distanced populations
Šutoová, Denisa ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Suchá, Barbora (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with sexual dimorphism and interpopulation variability of skull morphology between recent Egyptian population and a historical population, which is not geographically distanced but originates from the Old Kingdom period (Egypt, 2700-2180 BC). Estimating sex and population affinity is an important part of the process of building a biological profile of unknown human remains, and the skull is one of the best parts of the skeleton to estimate these attributes. Sex estimation is based on the existence of sexual dimorphism, which is very population specific, and sex determination is more reliable when population-specific methods are applied. Therefore, it is required to perform population affinity estimation before sex determination. A total of 143 adult specimens were included in the analysis. 47 three-dimensional exocranial meshes of skulls of individuals originating from the Old Kingdom period (31 males and 16 females) and 96 CT images of the heads from the recent Egyptian population in the age range of 18-86 years. (49 males and 47 females). The material was evaluated using the methods of geometric morphometry. In the analysis of the form, significant differences between the sexes were found. The most sexually dimorphic areas were the supraorbital arches, glabella, arcus...
Inter- and intra-population variability of dentition
Jónová, Markéta ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Zazvonilová, Eliška (referee)
The human dentition exhibits morphological variability that can be evaluated at various levels. Essentially, two levels can be distinguished. The first one is the inter-population level, which deals with the comparison of two or more populations. The second one is the intra-population level, which deals with the evaluation of the dentition of genetically related and unrelated individuals. Dental morphological traits that can be evaluated include discrete dental traits and odontometric traits. An important feature of these traits is their genetic determination and heritability. As a result, they can be used as indicators of kinship. The use of morphological traits of dentition in population studies has its advantages but also some pitfalls. The main advantage lies in the fact that visual scoring of dental morphological traits is relatively technically undemanding and non-destructive. Another advantage is preservability of teeth in the archaeological and fossil record due to durability of the enamel. The main disadvantage of visual scoring is its dependency on the subjective view of the observer. Scoring can also be negatively influenced by tooth wear. To achieve a comprehensive view on the variability of dentition, it is also beneficial to understand the factors that affect its formation. Key words:...
Geometric-morphometric approach to age and sex variability of the acetabulum
Cibulková, Simona ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Bejdová, Šárka (referee)
6 Abstract This thesis compared age and sex differences in lunate surface morphology using a 3D geometric-morphometric approach. The acetabulum of 240 individuals was compared using landmarks and semilandmarks placed along the edge of the lunate surface. The individuals ranged in age from 20 to 90 and came from three geographic areas. This thesis was based on the study of San-Millán et al. (2017a) that used a 2D geometric-morphometric approach to investigate the shape of the acetabulum. Analyses in this thesis showed that size, sex, and age significantly affect the acetabular shape. The differences between both sexes can be observed in the size and depth of the acetabulum, the width of the acetabular notch, and the amount of bone growth at the acetabular horns and along the edges of the lunate surface. Both sexes exhibit age- related changes, which are linked to gradual deposits of bone along the edge of the lunate surface, the acetabular horns, and the acetabular fossa, which tends to lose the 3-lobed cloverleaf shape. According to the geometric-morphometric analysis conducted in this thesis, the acetabulum provides more accurate age estimates for individuals younger than 65 years of age. Keywords: Bioarchaeology, forensic anthropology, age estimation, sex estimation, acetabulum, lunate surface of hip...
Sexual differences and sex assessment from 3D computed tomography models of the mandible
Piskačová, Kateřina ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Bejdová, Šárka (referee)
This master thesis deals with sex estimation from 3D models of mandible and validity of published discriminant functions. Although discriminant functions are known to be population specific, authors pursue to design a discriminant function that will be least affected by population specificity and for which a wider use could be envisaged for sex estimation. Such discriminant functions have been suggested by Tunis et al. (2017) in a very heterogenous population of Israel and more recently (Gillet et al., 2020) in the French population. The basic question of our work was whether these discriminant functions are usable and reliable even in the Czech population. In the first part of the thesis, 61 (30 female and 31 male) 3D models of the mandible of adult of recent Czech population were used for the validation study of discriminant functions for five different states of mandibular completeness (Tunis et al., 2017) and one discriminant function for the complete mandible (Gillet et al., 2020). Total 28 measurements were taken on the mandibles in the program Viewbox 4. In the Czech population, we achieved a correct classification of 60-93.3 % depending on the completeness of the mandible, after using the Israeli functions. For the French fiction, we achieved the correct classification of 83.3 %. To find...
Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis - its origin, evolutionary and functional implications
Kubátová, Lucie ; Rmoutilová, Rebeka (advisor) ; Bejdová, Šárka (referee)
Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis is usually being explained as an adaptation to upright walking and giving birth to newborns with large heads. This process led to the formation of a complicated birth mechanism. A relationship between size of the mother's pelvis and a head of the fetus is called an obstetrical dilemma. Under the influence of this evolution concept, the female pelvis is considered a strongly limited evolutionary structure. It is necessary that the female pelvis is wide enough, so that a baby can be born while allowing an effective bipedalism at the same time. Recent publications, however, are discussing this concept focusing more on the pelvic variability in the population. New findings have recently emerged concerning effects of ecological factors and neutral processes. The hypothesis of the developmental concept of the obstetrical dilemma is also proposed. Together, all these findings undermine the original model of human pelvis evolution, which is primarily based on selective compromise between two contradictory forces. The aim of the thesis is to describe the evolution of pelvic structures during evolution, to summarize the factors that contribute to the origin of sexual dimorphism in human pelvis and to approach the birth mechanism of humans compared to primates. Keywords...
Morphology of the mandible with regard to the demographic structure of the early medieval burial area Mikulčice
Thon, Tomáš ; Bejdová, Šárka (advisor) ; Velemínský, Petr (referee)
This Master's thesis focuses on the influence of socioeconomic status on the morphology of the mandible of individuals from the early medieval burial area in Mikulčice. This hillfort was an important center of power of the Great Moravian Empire with a stratified society. This work compares 2 different approaches on how to divide the inhabitants. The first of them is the division of individuals according to the location of graves into individuals from the castle, sub-castle, and hinterland. The second approach is the division of individuals according to the richness of grave equipment into individuals with rich and poor grave equipment. A different social status is associated mainly with different diets. Therefore, the attachments of the masticatory muscles are the most affected areas. A total of 132 individuals (59 males and 73 females) were analyzed. The material was evaluated by methods of geometric morphometrics. The used methods were CDP DCA, GPA, two-sample t-test, PCA, MANOVA, and SVM. Sexual dimorphism was observed in all sub-groups of the Mikulčice population. Men have larger mandibles with rami wider apart. The biggest differences are between individuals from the castle, the smallest between individuals with rich grave equipment. The distribution of individuals based on the location of...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 29 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.