Výzkumné zprávy

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2021-05-30
00:00
Sick pay and absence from work: evidence from flu exposure
Grossmann, Jakub
The system of sick-pay is critical for balancing the economic and health costs of infectious diseases. Surprisingly, most research on sick-pay reforms does not rely on variation in worker exposure to diseases when investigating absences from work. This paper studies the effects on absences from work of changes in health-insurance coverage of the first three days of sickness. We explore geographic variation in the prevalence of infectious diseases, primarily the seasonal flu, to provide variation in the need for sickness insurance. Estimates based on the Czech Structure of Earnings Survey imply that when sickness insurance is not available, total hours of work missed are not affected, but employees rely on paid and unpaid leave instead of sick-leave to stay home. The substitution effects are heterogenous across occupations and socio-demographic characteristics of employees, and suggest that workers do not spread infectious diseases at the workplace as a result of the absence of sickness insurance coverage in the first three days of sickness.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Learning about ethnic discrimination from different information sources
Korlyakova, Darya
We experimentally study whether public beliefs about ethnic discrimination, an emotionally loaded issue, are shifted more by information from experts or from ordinary people. We also examine whether people are inclined to choose the most influential sources. For this purpose, we combine, in a novel design, the random provision of information from different sources with endogenous information acquisition from the same sources. We find that individuals update their beliefs most in response to information from experts, namely researchers studying ethnic minorities and human resource managers. Exogenous adjustments in beliefs do not induce changes in attitudes to ethnic minorities. Consistent with the strength of belief updating, more individuals choose information from experts over information from ordinary people. This result suggests that, in the aggregate, people behave rationally as they favor a source that is perceived to be relatively accurate. The findings have implications for information dissemination policies.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets
Drlje, M. ; Jurajda, Štěpán
A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered admission based on small quasi-random differences in admission scores. Assuming that the students at the margin of admission differ only in the treatment assignment, this literature relies on admission scores to instrument for admission or graduation. We point out that non-compliance with the centralized matching assignment typically corresponds to enrolling in one’s preferred program a year after the initial assignment, introducing significant non-compliance costs. We show that with costly non-compliance, the exclusion restriction, the key assumption of the LATE theorem, is violated, leading to biased estimates when instrumenting for graduation, i.e., for a treatment taking place after non-compliance costs are incurred. We use data from a student-college matching market in Croatia to illustrate the empirical importance of this potential source of bias and propose a method inspired by Lee (2009), which recovers the treatment effect bounds under the assumption that the costs of non-compliance are not related to the treatment assignment.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Doleželová, P.
We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows large participation gaps in favor of large employers, and disproportionately high intensity of use of the program by manufacturing companies, in particular those exhibiting a declining wage bill already prior to the pandemic. Compared to other industries, manufacturing is thus able to ‘cover’ by kurzarbeit support the largest share of the decline in hours worked between the 2nd quarters of 2019 and 2020, with the exception of the hospitality and culture industries, which were directly affected by pandemic measures, such as restaurant closures.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Wages, minimum wages, and price pass-through: the case of McDonald's restaurants
Ashenfelter, O. ; Jurajda, Štěpán
We use highly consistent national-coverage price and wage data to provide evidence on wage increases, labor-saving technology introduction, and price pass-through by a large low-wage employer facing minimum wage hikes. Based on 2016-2020 hourly wage rates of McDonald’s Basic Crew and prices of the Big Mac sandwich collected simultaneously from almost all US McDonald’s restaurants, we find that in about 25% of instances of minimum wage increases, restaurants display a tendency to keep constant their wage ‘premium’ above the increasing minimum wage. Higher minimum wages are not associated with faster adoption of touch-screen ordering, and there is near-full price pass-through of minimum wages, with little heterogeneity related to how binding minimum wage increases are for restaurants. Minimum wage hikes lead to increases in real wages (expressed in Big Macs an hour of Basic Crew work can buy) that are one fifth lower than the corresponding increases in nominal wages.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Forced migration, staying minorities, and new societies: evidence from post-war Czechoslovakia
Grossmann, Jakub ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Roesel, F.
Forced migration traumatizes millions displaced from their homes, but little is known about the few who manage to stay and become a minority in a new society. We study the case of German stayers in Sudetenland, a region from which Czechoslovakia expelled ethnic Germans after World War Two. The unexpected presence of the US Army in parts of 1945 Czechoslovakia resulted in more anti-fascist Germans avoiding displacement compared to regions liberated by the Red Army. We study the long-run impacts of this local variation in the presence of left-leaning stayers and find that Communist party support and local party cell frequencies, as well as far-left values and social policies are more pronounced today where anti-fascist Germans stayed in larger numbers. Our findings also suggest that political identity supplanted German ethnic identity among anti-fascist stayers. The German staying minority shaped the political identity of newly formed local societies after ethnic cleansing by providing the ‘small seed’ of political development.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
The effects of minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic
Grossmann, Jakub
This paper analyzes employment effects of four minimum wage increases implemented in the Czech Republic during 2012-2017, which cumulatively increased the national minimum wage by 37 percent. We analyze outcomes at the level of firm-occupation-county-specific job cells and apply an intensity-treatment estimator similar to that of Machin et al. (2003). Our preferred specifications suggest that minimum wage increases led to higher wages for low-paid workers and did not have significant impacts on their employment.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Analýza napjatosti kleneb v budově Univerzitního centra Masarykovy univerzity v Telči
Bayer, Jan ; Drdácký, Miloš
Zpráva shrnuje výsledky z místních šetření, expertních posudků a výpočtů, které se týkají kleneb v objektu bývalé jezuitské koleje v Telči na náměstí Zachariáše z Hradce č.p. 2. Podmětem pro šetření byl nedostatek podkladů pro posouzení zatížitelnost kleneb pro nový účel: zřízení veřejné knihovny kombinované s galerií. Provedené výpočty MKP slouží pro odhad napjatosti klenby v místnosti 0.22Aa nenahrazují statický výpočet, ale mohou sloužit jako podklad pro eventuální zpracování podrobného statického výpočtu.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-30
00:00
Agrolesnictví - šance pro regionální rozvoj a udržitelnost venkovské krajiny
Krčmářová, Jana ; Bahenský, František ; Brendzová, Alica ; Kala, Lukáš ; Szabó, Péter
Cílem projektu je posoudit přínosy, možnosti a bariéry uplatnění agrolesnických systémů (ALS) na území ČR s primárním zaměřením na socio-ekonomický, legislativní a environmentální kontext. Jedná se o hodnocení výsadby dřevin na orné půdě v oblastech postihovaných půdní erozí a suchem a dále chov zvířat v kombinací se stromovou složkou. Na základě podrobné literární rešerše, terénních socio-etnologických šetření a produkčně-ekonomických dat shromážděných od zemědělců budou komplexně hodnoceny přínosy ALS na zemědělské půdě. Analyzovány budou dále legislativní bariéry, příležitosti a podpory pěstování stromů na zemědělské půdě. Konečným výstupem projektu budou jak výsledky v podobě vědeckých publikací tak zejména podklady (metodiky) pro uplatnění a zavádění agrolesnických systému v ČR.

Úplný záznam
2021-05-16
00:42
Průzkum stropní konstrukce knihovny Jezuitské koleje v Telči
Válek, Jan ; Skružná, Olga
Cílem nedestruktivního průzkumu bylo bližší poznání stropní konstrukce před plánovanou rekonstrukcí knihovny.

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