National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Impact of downregulation of gene expression of the peptidase subunit ClpP of the mitochondrial protease ClpXP on structure and function of mitochondria in human cells
Kolařík, Daniel ; Stibůrek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Pecina, Petr (referee)
Mitochondria are some of the most complex organelles of eukaryotic cell. They have their own genome and transcriptional apparatus and maintain several key cellular functions. A substantial part of cellular energetic metabolism happens in the mitochondria, as well as formation of iron-sulfur complexes, synthesis of several key molecules and they are also the essential organelles for the apoptotic pathway. In order to maintain the quality of proteins in their oxidative environment, mitochondria have developed a complex system of proteases that reaches all the mitochondrial compartments that degrade damaged proteins and thus promote mitochondrial turnover. The aim of this work was to characterise function of ClpP subunit of ClpXP matrix protease, which role was not yet extensively investigated in human cells. Therefore, we used RNA-interference to silence expression of ClpP in HEK 293 cells and then we performed rescue experiment during which we reintroduced ClpP in cells. Our results show that the ClpP subunit does not actively participate in apoptotic pathway, nevertheless it is essential for correct assembly of all the respiratory complexes as well as the quality of mitochondria itself. We have also shown that the system of mitochondrial proteases is highly functional and that a lack of ClpP...
Change in bodyweight and body composition during the weightlifting training unit and nutrition in strength sports
Vašků, Karolína ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Petráková Doležalová, Radka (referee)
This bachelor thesis monitors changes in body weight and body composition during training in professional athletes, three women and four men, from the Czech weightlifting team. The theoretical part describes components of the body composition, basic methods and calculations for its assessment. In addition, energy substrates used in weightlifting and sport nutrition basics, including suitable supplements for power athletes, are mentioned. In the practical part, using the bioelectric impedance device, we evaluated the actual body composition and energy needs of individuals in a series of three defined measurements-before training, after training, and after meals. The results of our qualitative research confirm that the energy needs of power athletes are far higher than predicted. We compared the minimum caloric requirement values obtained with the In Body 230 device measurement to those obtained using the Harris-Benedicts predictive equations (HBE), and pointed to significant deviations in basal metabolism calculations and inaccuracy of the results obtained with this equation. In most cases, with HBE, we have experienced undervalue in comparison to the In Body measurement. We have also confirmed the fact that the BMI is not suitable for the weight loss evaluation in weightlifters because of the...
Circadian system in mitochondria
Šemíková, Johana ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Moravcová, Radka (referee)
The rhythms of circadian clocks throughout our bodies are not governed only by the light/dark cycle, but in many peripheral tissues circadian clocks are reset based on availability of nutrients and timing of food intake. The circadian system responds to changes in the levels of two metabolites (AMP and NAD+ ) that are central to biochemical reactions involved in energy production, storage, and utilization through the metabolic sensors AMPK and SIRT1. The aim of this review is to summarize mechanisms for energetic metabolism known to date that are connected with the regulation of circadian rhythms and explain their function in maintaining their stability. Last but not least, to show possible dysregulation of these mechanisms and their impact on the circadian system.
Modulation of RNA demethylase FTO function in SH-SY5Y cells: the effect on insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiration
Čočková, Zuzana ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Hlaváčková, Markéta (referee)
Aim of this thesis was to observe changes in oxidative metabolism and expression of important neuroenergetic proteins in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y due to inhibition of FTO. FTO is a RNA demethylase that uses N6-methyladenosine as substrate. Differences in enzyme expression are connected to broad area of effects involving energy homeostasis. Mitochondria are cellular powerhouses, a key elements in production of energy and metabolic substrates, yet a source of potentially dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and analogous reactive molecules. In order to better understand FTO purpose in neuronal energetic metabolism, we examined mitochondrial respiratory chain. Using high-resolution respirometry we were capable of observing impairment in mitochondrial respiration after FTO inhibition. There was considerable decline in endogenous respiration, maximal respiration rate and reserve capacity. In order to obtain more detailed view into mitochondrial respiration, expression levels of electron-transport complexes were quantified by Western blot technique. Slight reduction was identified in subunits of complex I and IV. However, the most prominent alteration was seen in complex II subunit. There were no differences in expression of complex III and ATP synthase subunits. Beside disrupted activity...
The role of mitochondrial metabolism in initiation and adaptation to hypoxic conditions.
Rohlenová, Terezie ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Rohlena, Jakub (referee)
We can meet pathological hypoxia in the cases of hearth attack, ischemic stroke, but also during tumor invasion, thanks to insufficient angiogenesis. The activation of HIF- 1 factor during hypoxic conditions is crucial for the cell survival. This factor modulates energetic metabolism in favor of fast progressing glycolysis (with the contribution of glutaminolysis) which provides to cell enough ATP and "building blocks", while suppressing Krebs cycle and respiration because of shortage of oxygen. The thesis studies energetic metabolism of HepG2 cells (derived from liver carcinoma) which are cultivated in the media with various energetic substrates, i. e. glucose or galactose (always together with glutamine and pyruvate) under the hypoxic conditions (5% O2). HepG2 cells use particularly oxidative metabolism for ATP and "building blocks" production under the normoxic conditions while hypoxic environment causes metabolic shift in glycemic condition. Interestingly, cells cultured in galactose (glutamine) didn't switch the energy metabolism from oxidative to aerobic glycolysis such as cells cultivated in glucose, although HIF-1 factor was stabilized. We found that enhanced activity and integrity of mitochondria, enhanced maximal capacity and reserve capacity of respiration chain correlates with...
Maturation of AMPK in skeletal muscle during early postnatal development
Hansíková, Jana ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important metabolic sensor in eukaryotic organisms and it plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis, at both the cells and the whole organism. AMPK controls glucose and lipid metabolism by direct stimulation of enzymes or by long term stimulation of the gene expression of energy metabolism. Skeletal muscles significantly contribute to the total body weight and metabolic rate and to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Due to the ability of the muscle to increase energy expenditure to 95% of whole-body energy expenditure, could be the proper development and programming of metabolism in the early postnatal period crucial for the further development of the organism in adulthood. Early postnatal development leads to substantial changes in energy requirements of the body and this suggests the significant involvement of AMPK in this period. The aim of this thesis was to study the activity and expression of isoforms of the catalytic subunit of AMPK in skeletal muscle during early postnatal development of both mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6 that differ in the development of diet-induced obesity. The next task was to analyze the expression of selected genes involved in energy metabolism - GLUT4, PGC-1α and UCP3 that AMPK regulates. It was found that the...
Energetický metabolismus inbredních myších linií a jeho ovlivnění dietou
Kůs, Vladimír ; Kopecký, Jan (advisor) ; Nováková, Olga (referee) ; Mráček, Tomáš (referee)
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders, called as "metabolic syndrome", currently represent a major social and economical problem of public health. From the energy balance point of view, long-lasting energy surplus leads eventually to massive accumulation of energy stores resulting in various adverse effects on metabolism and health. General goal of the thesis was to examine these metabolic disorders at cellular and whole-body level using suitable mouse models. The main focus was on the most metabolically active tissue, namely skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue and on the regulatory roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and leptin in the energy metabolism. The whole thesis is based on four published studies. Two studies were focused on skeletal muscle. In the first study, we proved the involvement of leptin and AMPK in the metabolic response to high-fat diet-feeding. We described a mechanism of muscle non- shivering thermogenesis based on enhanced lipid catabolism, which contributes to the genetically-determined resistance of inbred A/J mice to obesity. Such mechanism was not operating in obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice. In the second study, performed using C57BL/6 mice, we have described beneficial effect of combination treatment using n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of...
Adipokinetic hormones and the energetic metabolism in the spruce bark beetle (\kur{Ips typographus} L.)
The aim of the thesis was to elucidate the occurrence of adipokinetic hormones in the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) by competitive ELISA and LC/MS analysis. Total lipid and carbohydrate content as well as levels of glucose, trehalose and glycogen were measured to characterize physiological changes during particular phases of the life cycle.

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