National Repository of Grey Literature 84 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Mitochondrial structure and energetic metabolism changes in patients with Huntington's disease and in transgenic minipig model
Vanišová, Marie ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee) ; Mühlbäck, Alžbeta (referee)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. HD is caused by the expansion of the CAG triplet in the gene for the huntingtin protein (Htt), which leads to damage and loss of its functions. Htt is essential in the development of the nervous system, it is involved in axonal transport, regulation of mitochondrial metabolism gene expression or spermiogenesis. In HD, the nerve tissue is most significantly damaged, but pathological changes associated with the disease are detected throughout the organism. There is currently no satisfactory treatment. Mitochondrial damage has been shown to significantly affect the progression of HD in patients with HD, but the mechanisms of mitopathy and its development with all the effects on tissue physiology in HD are still not fully understood. The aim of the dissertation theses was to study mitochondrial energy metabolism impairment, mitochondrial network organization and mitochondrial ultrastructure in HD in selected tissues of patients with HD and in a minipig model transgenic for HD (TgHD). Furthermore, the effort was to find and characterize a mitochondrial biomarker of HD, which would well reflect the patient's current clinical phenotype state and it would be possible to monitor changes in its parameters...
Study of etiopathology of mitochondrial disorders
Rákosníková, Tereza ; Tesařová, Markéta (advisor) ; Pecina, Petr (referee) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically, biochemically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders with a prevalence of about 1:5 000 live births. A common sign of those disorders is disruption of mitochondrial energetic metabolism. To this day, more than 400 genes have been associated with mitochondrial disorders, but 45% of patients are still without a genetic diagnosis. Using next-generation sequencing, new candidate genes or variants are found. To confirm the causality of those newly found genes or variants, biochemical characterisation using a plethora of various methods is necessary. The first aim of this thesis was to study the function of ACBD3 protein on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in non-steroidogenic cells HEK293 and HeLa and to confirm the causality of the ACBD3 gene in a patient with combined oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficit. The second aim was to confirm the causality of two novel variants in MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes, which encode structural subunits of complex I (CI) of the respiratory chain. The third aim of the thesis was to study the formation of supercomplexes (SCs) in patients with rare metabolic diseases. Using functional studies, we showed in this thesis that ACBD3 protein has no essential function in mitochondria but plays an important role in...
Modulation of Mitophagy in Huntington Disease
Šonský, Ivan ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
Huntington diseases (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of the aggregation prone mutated version of protein huntingtin (HTT). Mutation in huntingtin (mHTT) results in an aberrant expansion of the polyglutamine tract, thereby gaining toxic properties, which causes progressive loss of striatal medium spiny neurons. Neurons heavily rely on a healthy mitochondrial pool. Thereby, it is crucial to preserve biological mechanisms maintaining its turnover and quality control, such as mitophagy. However, mHTT impairs mitophagy, therefore preventing autophagosomes from engulfing mitochondria and resulting in an accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Our recent results showed that mHTT-caused mitochondrial impairments can be observed in more easily accessible extraneuronal cells such as skin fibroblasts. While mitophagy is considered a fundamental cellular process, there is a lack of compounds selectively modulating mitophagy. Thereby, the aim of this diploma thesis was to introduce a small-molecule compound, MIND4-17, which showed neuroprotective effects in HD, and to study its selective effect on mitophagy in cultivated fibroblasts from HD patients and controls. Here we report that MIND4-17 increased the expression of specific autophagy markers in fibroblasts...
Mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and its role in physiological regulations
Holzerová, Eliška ; Mráček, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
The production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and the resulting oxidative stress is an important phenomenon driving long-lasting research and intense discussions. Knowledge of exact mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production and pathways leading to their formation could help us to directly affect their production, a task with potential terapeutic implications. The molecular nature of the production of reactive oxygen species by some enzymes has already been well documented, but others still remain controversial and current theories are obviously far from the truth. Much more interesting is the question of physiological importace of this production. The reactive oxygen species were considered harmful factors clearly distorting the integrity of the organism for a long time. However, recent research suggest that their existence can also be beneficial and effective. Evidently they can serve as a signaling molecules in several metabolic and regulatory pathways occurring in the organism. This bachelor thesis offers insight into the current state of knowledge. It focuses on the most detailed description of the reactive oxygen species production by mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes. Furthermore, it deals with some signaling cascades, where involvement of mitochondrially generated...
Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase: cyanide inhibition and role of assembly factor Surf1 defect
Nůsková, Hana ; Drahota, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
The activity of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) can be affected by either exogenous or endogenous factors. The most efficient and in the environment abundant compound that inhibits COX is cyanide. The very frequent cause of COX deficiency in humans is represented by a defect in the SURF1 gene. The mechanism of cyanide inhibitory effect on COX as well as the conditions for its recovery are not yet fully explained. Three parameters of COX function, namely the transport of electrons (oxygen consumption), the transport of protons (mitochondrial membrane potential, m) and the enzyme affinity to oxygen (p50 value), were studied with regard to the inhibition by KCN and its reversal by pyruvate. The function of COX was analysed in intact isolated rat liver mitochondria, both within the respiratory chain and as a sole enzyme, using succinate or an artificial electron donor ascorbate + TMPD as a substrate. 250 M KCN completely inhibited both electron- and proton-transporting function of COX, and this inhibition was reversible as proved with washing of mitochondria. The addition of 60 mM pyruvate induced the maximal recovery of both parameters to 60 - 80 % of original values. Using KCN in the low concentration range up to 5 M, a profound, 30-fold decrease of COX affinity to oxygen was observed....
Effect of ectopic synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 in white adipose tissue on whole-body metabolism in mice
Janovská, Petra ; Kopecký, Jan (advisor) ; Drahota, Zdeněk (referee) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
The prevention and treatment of obesity is a major problem of health care systems in affluent societies. Metabolism of adipose tissue belongs to the therapeutical targets, since accumulation of adipose tissue is the basis of obesity development. Experiments using transgenic mice with ectopic expression of brown- fat uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), verified a concept that obesity could be ameliorated by increasing energy expenditure in WAT. The goal of the experiments of this PhD Thesis was to characterize in detail the phenotype of this unique animal model of obesity resistance. We have shown that mitochondrial uncoupling in WAT resulted in increased oxidation of fatty acids (FA), in face of decreased lipogenesis and induced mitochondrial biogenesis in this tissue. In further studies, we aimed to modulate propensity to obesity be increasing FA oxidation in WAT in response to physiological stimuli. This could be accomplished in response to the combination treatment using n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and mild calorie restriction in mice fed high-fat diet. Synergistic induction of mitochondrial oxidative capacity and lipid catabolism in epididymal WAT was associated with suppression of low-grade inflammation of WAT, which is typical for obesity. The improvement of lipid...
Cytochrome c and its role in apoptosis
Rajsiglová, Lenka ; Kalous, Martin (advisor) ; Švadlenka, Jan (referee)
Cell energetic metabolism and cell survival are strictly controlled by pathways in which cytochrome molecules play a central role, in particular cytochrome c. It is localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space with other molecules cooperating in keeping energetic metabolism. Permeabilization of outer mitochondrial membrane by proteins from Bcl-2 family or changes in Ca2+ levels causes cytochrome c release into cytosol. In cytosol cytochrome c interacts with other pro-apoptotic proteins (Apaf-1, procaspase-9) cooperating to form apoptosome and phosphatidylserine. As a result of these interactions, the cell is going to apoptosis. This bachelor thesis summarizes the current state of knowledge of these processes. In the first part it focuses on the biosynthesis of cytochrome c, further on the mechanisms of its releasing from mitochondria and its interactions with other proteins within apoptosis including options of regulation of these processes.
Mitochondrial permeability transition pore and its role in cardioprotection
Ryba, Lukáš ; Kalous, Martin (advisor) ; Brabcová, Iveta (referee)
The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a non-specific voltage dependent channel which is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. High calcium concentration and oxidative stress are main inducers of MPTP opening in a tissue which is affected by ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion. Morbidity and mortality of pacients who suffer from acute myocardial infaction or cardiochirugical operation, depends on the size of ischemic- reperfusion injury (IRI). The methods of IRI attenuation are based on the inhibition of the MPTP through farmacological intervention or ischemic conditioning. This thesis summarizes the current knowledge about the MPTP structure, regulation and its role in cardioprotection. Key words: mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cardioprotection, ischemic conditioning, CsA, SAFE and RISK pathway
Molecular mechanism of reactive oxygen species production by flavin dehydrogenases of mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Holzerová, Eliška ; Mráček, Tomáš (advisor) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to investigate molecular mechanism of reactive oxygen species production by flavin dehydrogenases mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Together, they represent important source of reactive oxygen species in mammalian mitochondria, but the mechanism of electron leak is still poorly understood. Because mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production by other complexes of respiratory chain are better characterized, they can serve as case studies to get insight into mechanisms of reactive oxygen species by flavin dehydrogenases. Relevant knowledge is therefore summarized in the first part of the thesis. To study the production of reactive oxygen species by the isolated flavin dehydrogenases, we used brown adipose tissue mitochondria solubilized by digitonin as a model. Enzyme activity measurements, hydrogen peroxide production studies by Amplex UltraRed fluorescence and luminol luminescence revealed flavin as the most likely source of electron leak in SDH under in vivo conditions, while we propose coenzyme Q binding site as the site of reactive oxygen species production in the case of mGPDH. Distinct mechanism of this production by the two dehydrogenases is also apparent from induction of reactive oxygen species...

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